As part of our commitment to data quality, accessibility, and ease of use, we strive to use an integrated taxonomy across eBird, Macaulay Library, Birds of the World, Merlin and other Cornell Lab of Ornithology projects. Our 2021 update includes 17 newly-described species, 71 species are split (resulting in a net gain of 94 species) there are eight species lost through lumps, resulting in a net gain of 103 species and a new total of 10,824 species worldwide. This year’s update includes all changes in the last two years, after we skipped the 2020 revision as part of a database upgrade.

As of 8 September, all changes should now be complete. This includes your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists; data entry should be behaving normally, but you may notice unexpected species appearing on eBird Alerts (this issue will diminish with time). If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened. If you still see records appearing in unexpected ways please write to us.

2021 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2021 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2021) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2021 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download, each as either an Excel spreadsheet or comma-delimited (csv) format.

The Clements Checklist 2021 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. This year’s changes incorporate two supplements to the AOS-NACC checklist, the 61st supplement https://academic.oup.com/auk/article/137/3/ukaa030/5865308

Sixty-first supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds and the Sixty-second supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds, as well as a Sixty-first supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s short addendum to the 61st supplement . AOS-SACC revisions to the South American Check-List through 23 May 2021 are also included.

This is largely in sync with the above Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

INTRODUCTION

When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and appear in eBird output fairly quickly. Staying on top of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to keep track. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it with “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies. For example, this year, those who have birded in North and South America may notice that your previous reports of Southern Caracara Caracara plancus and Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway have changed to Crested Caracara (Southern) Caracara plancus plancus and Crested Caracara (Northern) Caracara plancus [cheriway Group].

When splits occur, the process is more complicated. In most cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All records reported to a subspecies group level update automatically to the new species. When a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Mew Gull Larus canus was split into two species, Common Gull Larus canus and Short-billed Gull Larus brachyrhynchus. In most areas, this split is fairly easy to understand: Common Gull is the widespread form in Eurasia and Short-billed Gull is the common one in western North America (e.g., Alaska south to northwestern Mexico). Short-billed Gull wanders widely as a rare visitor and vagrant across central Canada and the western United States, Great Plains, and even Midwest. However, along the East Coast, both species are very rare but both species are possible. In general, records from Atlantic Canada and New England pertain to Common Gulls, with Short-billed Gull getting more likely as one moves west and south. But both species are known from Ontario, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina, so clearly one has to identify Mew Gulls with care. eBird can thus convert your records for you in almost all areas, but records in the eastern US must be well-documented to establish which species is involved. Those that cannot be converted will be seen as Common/Short-billed Gull.

If you want to review your records of “Common/Short-billed Gull” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher”, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Common/Short-billed Gull” then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Common/Short-billed Gull” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

Finally, there are only minor changes to taxonomic sequence this year, mostly involving hummingbirds and the family Phasianidae (pheasants, grouse, turkeys). This may be a bit disorienting if you have memorized the sequence of species, but please be aware that Quick Entry makes it very easy to find and enter any species during data entry. Did you know that typing “37 weca” in eBird mobile will quick add 37 Western Capercaillies to whatever total you have already entered? (Learn how!). Also, learning to search for a species within your browser may be helpful too, since this works to quickly jump to a species in any species list (e.g., bar chart, Location Explorer) on eBird.

LANGUAGES

We provide bird names in eBird for more than 48 languages (e.g., Arabic, Bulgarian, Thai, etc.), as well as 36 additional regional versions of some languages (total 84). For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where it’s called Grey Plover. You can access name preferences under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. One option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v11.1) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Bird Names in eBird article explains more about regional common name preferences.

SPECIES SPLITS

The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “My Records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for all below accounts can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error. Below are the splits for this update:


Variable Chachalaca Ortalis motmot is split into:

The two species are divided by the Amazon River, Variable to the north (to the Guianas) and Chestnut-headed, a Brazilian endemic, to the south of the river.


Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura is split into:

The two species are similar, but have consistent plumage differences and are well separated by range, with Dusky-legged Guan in Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (e.g., Misiones), and Yungas Guan along the east slope of the Andes from central Bolivia to Catmarca, Argentina.


Crested Argus Rheinardia ocellata is split into:

This split highlights how photos of birds in life and audio recordings can help supplement museum specimens for taxonomic assessments; it was additional information about soft parts colors (which fade), crest structure (best seen in live birds), and vocalizations that made the case for this split. Already considered Endangered before the split, Malayan Crested Argus is even rarer (very few eBird records) than Vietnamese Crested Argus and is immediately of elevated conservation concern now that its distinctiveness is fully recognized.


Vaux’s Swift Chaetura vauxi is split into:

  • Vaux’s Swift Chaetura vauxi [map] [media] [my records]
    • Vaux’s Swift (Vaux’s) Chaetura vauxi vauxi [map] [media]
    • Vaux’s Swift (Yucatan) Chaetura vauxi gaumeri [map] [media]
    • Vaux’s Swift (Richmond’s) Chaetura vauxi [richmondi Group] [map] [media]
    • Vaux’s Swift (aphanes) Chaetura vauxi aphanes [map] [media]
  • Ashy-tailed Swift Chaetura andrei [map] [media] [my records]

Swifts in the genus Chaetura are among the most enigmatic taxa of birds worldwide, since their plumage and structure are nearly identical between species. Even as Amazonian Swift is lumped (see below), a new swift species is recognized, with the localized and poorly-known Venezuela endemic Ashy-tailed Swift being granted species status, separated from Vaux’s Swift which is widespread in North and Middle America and already a challenge to separate from migrating Chimney Swifts.


African Palm-Swift Cypsiurus parvus is split into:

  • African Palm-Swift Cypsiurus parvus [map] [media] [my records]
  • Malagasy Palm-Swift Cypsiurus gracilis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Malagasy Palm-Swift (Comoro) Cypsiurus gracilis griveaudi [map] [media]
    • Malagasy Palm-Swift (Madagascar) Cypsiurus gracilis gracilis [map] [media]

Voice and plumage have indicated that the palm-swifts on Madagascar and Comoros are distinct from those on mainland Africa.


Festive Coquette Lophornis chalybeus is split into:

Differences in displays and iridescence of males is continuing to reveal that taxa formerly considered subspecies are in fact reproductively isolated. Festive Coquette occurs in the Atlantic Forests of southeast Brazil, while Butterfly Coquette is more widespread in northern and central South America.


Broad-billed Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris is split into:

  • Broad-billed Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris [map] [media] [my records]
    • Broad-billed Hummingbird (Northern) Cynanthus latirostris [latirostris Group] [map] [media]
    • Broad-billed Hummingbird (Tres Marias Is.) Cynanthus latirostris lawrencei [map] [media]
  • Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird Cynanthus doubledayi [map] [media] [my records]

Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird has sometimes been known as Doubleday’s Hummingbird. Note that while genetics seem to unequivocally support the split, and while plumage is distinctive and consistent, AOS-NACC has not yet considered this split; we expect this split to be endorsed by AOS-NACC in 2022.


Diamantina Sabrewing Campylopterus diamantinensis is recognized as a species distinct from Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis. Following the earlier split of Outcrop Sabrewing Campylopterus calcirupicola, formerly known as Dry-forest Sabrewing (see common name changes below), the Diamantina Sabrewing represents another range-restricted single-Brazilian-state-endemic, this one occurring in the Serra Espinhaço of Minas Gerais.

  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (largipennis) Campylopterus largipennis largipennis [map] [media]
    • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (obscurus) Campylopterus largipennis obscurus [map] [media]
  • Diamantina Sabrewing Campylopterus diamantinensis [map] [media] [my records]

Following the 2019 recognition of Outcrop Sabrewing Campylopterus calcirupicola (formerly Dry-forest Sabrewing, see common name changes below), the Diamantina Sabrewing represents another range-restricted single-Brazilian-state-endemic, this one occurring in the Serra Espinhaço of Minas Gerais, as it is now recognized as distinct from the still-widespread Gray-breasted Sabrewing.


Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus is split into:

  • Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Kentish Plover (Kentish) Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus/nihonensis [map] [media]
    • Kentish Plover (Indian) Charadrius alexandrinus seebohmi [map] [media]
  • White-faced Plover Charadrius dealbatus [map] [media] [my records]

The saga of the White-faced Plover in Southeast Asia has been a very interesting case, with unusually-plumaged birds first noticed on the wintering grounds in Thailand. In more recent years, the taxonomic affinities of these birds have been worked out, their breeding grounds have been identified, and their status as a unique species has been confirmed and now has broad agreement.


South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae is split into:

Similar in plumage, the two species differ in displays and vocalizations. Paraguayan Snipe occurs widely in South America and Magellanic Snipe are restricted to Argentina and Chile, but caution is warranted in migration and the austral winter when some Magellanic Snipe move north to winter at least rarely as far north and east as Uruguay. The status of Magellanic Snipe as a migrant to the north and northeast remains mysterious, but there are specimens in the austral winter from ne. Argentina and Uruguay and Uruguayan birders (including eBird reviewer Pablo Fernández have some great photos and notes in this checklist, which help to highlight how the two species differ). Since identification is very difficult, especially when not winnowing, a slash option is provided for birds in potential areas of overlap.

  • Paraguayan/Magellanic Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae/magellanica [map] [media]

Mew Gull Larus canus is split into:

Birders who enjoy challenging gull ID can now try to find Common Gull (typically found in East Asia and Europe) in North America and Short-billed Gull (the North American species) in other regions. Check ‘Mew Gulls’ in the Eastern US and Canada with care, as both species may occur in that area.


Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus is split into:

Although very similar in plumage and structure, genetic evidence suggests these two terns are not closely related. These two species usually do not overlap in range, but since both species are known to occur as vagrants to western Europe, a fun new tern ID challenge is presented for students of bird identification in the region.


Eurasian Scops-Owl Otus scops is split into:

Cyprus Scops-Owl is a resident endemic on Cyprus, but identification can be tricky when migrant Eurasian Scops-Owls are passing through. Voice is the best way to separate the species.


Spotted Eagle-Owl Bubo africanus is split into:

Well-separated by range, Arabian Eagle-Owl (restricted to the Arabian Peninsula) and Spotted Eagle-Owl (of central and southern Africa) also differ in vocalizations, which helps define species limits in many species of nightbirds.


Collared Owlet Glaucidium brodiei is split into:

Sunda Owlet, which differs from the widespread Collared Owlet in voice and plumage, is restricted to Sumatra and Borneo and does not overlap in range with its sister species. Note also the change in genus from Glaucidium to Taenioptynx.


Tawny Owl Strix aluco is split into:

Maghreb Owl has a distinctive voice and is restricted to mountains of northern Africa.


Barred Owl Strix varia is split into:

These two species are similar in plumage, but are widely disjunct in range and have similar voices, as recently demonstrated by Spencer and Pieplow (2019). Cinereous Owl is only known from a few sites in Mexico, and additional locations should be actively explored; currently it is one of the rarest endemics in the country.


Southern Boobook Ninox boobook is split into:

Rote, Timor, and Alor are all well-known for their high levels of endemism, which becomes even more pronounced as each has an endemic boobook that is now separated from the more widespread Southern Boobook of Australia, New Guinea, and some Indonesian islands east of Timor.


Hantu Boobook Ninox squamipila is split into two island endemic species Seram Boobook Ninox squamipila and Buru Boobook Ninox hantu. Each has a distinctive voice, reinforcing the validity of the split.

Like many of the above owl splits, these two island endemics each have a distinctive voice.


Yellow-and-green Lorikeet Trichoglossus flavoviridis is split into:

Yellow-cheeked Lorikeet is the one on Sulawesi, with Sula Lorikeet occurring on smaller islands (Taliabu, Seho and Mangole) to the east of Sulawesi. Note the genus change as well, as the nomenclature of these lorikeets and their relatives has been revised.


Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius is split into:

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet adds yet another endemic to Colombia, while Riparian Parrotlet can be found in Amazonia and Cobalt-rumped Parrotlet can be found in tropical forests of southern South America.


Elegant Pitta Pitta elegans is split into:

Pittas are among the most beautiful and mysterious birds on the planet, and their names often reflect their elegance and ornateness. Banda Sea Pitta is found on Seram, Watubela, Banda, Tayandu, Kai and Tanimbar islands; Ornate Pitta on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara, Lomblen and Alor islands; and Elegant Pitta on Tanahjampea, Kalaotoa, Kalao, Sumba, Flores, Timor and associated islands, some migrating to winter in the Sulawesi region and the central Moluccas.


Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus is split into:

Rusty-winged Antwrens occur from Panama to Amazonian and eastern Brazil while Rufous-margined occur in eastern Brazil from Bahia south. The two species are fairly similar in plumage but differ in songs and do not overlap in range.


White-backed Fire-eye Pyriglena leuconota is split into:

  • Western Fire-eye Pyriglena maura [map] [media] [my records]
    • Western Fire-eye (Pacific) Pyriglena maura pacifica [map] [media]
    • Western Fire-eye (Black-bellied) Pyriglena maura castanoptera [map] [media]
    • Western Fire-eye (Black-headed) Pyriglena maura picea [map] [media]
    • Western Fire-eye (maura Group) Pyriglena maura [maura Group] [map] [media]
  • Tapajos Fire-eye Pyriglena similis [map] [media] [my records]
  • East Amazonian Fire-eye Pyriglena leuconota [map] [media] [my records]

As is often the case with Amazonian antbirds, major rivers have played a role in speciation and set the current distributional limits: Tapajos Fire-eye occurs between the Rio Tapajós to Rio Xingú, while East Amazonian Fire-eye occurs east of the Xingú and Western Fire-eye occurs west of the Tapajós. Western Fire-eye is quite widespread, occurring west to Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and s. Colombia and itself has a fair amount of diversity, with some or all of its four subspecies groups also candidates for further slitting in the future.


Among the most exciting taxonomic revisions is the long-awaited overhaul of the Rufous Antpitta Grallaria rufula and Chestnut Antpitta Grallaria blakei complex, which involved years of genetic analysis and a detailed analysis of the vocalizations by a team of international ornithologists.

After years of research and analysis, Mort Isler and his colleagues determined that the Rufous Antpitta is not one species, but 16—all of them common birds that are frequently encountered by locals, but hiding in plain sight— making this one of the most impressive radiations in the Andes. Peru alone has 10 species from these splits, 8 of them endemic!

In the below list, species with a dagger (†) are splits within the former Chestnut Antpitta complex; those with an asterisk (*) are newly-described species (also listed above), but we include them here since they are part of the Rufous Antpitta complex.

Antpittas in this complex look very similar, but analysis of genetic divisions and vocal differences were found that are consistent with species level differences. Since this information is so new, some uncertain records may remain and there could even be more to this story yet to be discovered. For these reasons, we have this spuh for conservative reporting.

  • antpitta sp. (Rufous/Chestnut Antpitta complex) Grallaria sp. (rufula/blakei complex) [map] [media] [my records]

Paramo Tapaculo Scytalopus opacus is split into:

As with many Scytalopus, the plumages of the two species are nearly identical but the vocalizations and genetics are distinctive and the ranges do not overlap. Loja Tapaculo occurs south of the Río Zamora in southern Ecuador (departments of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe) and northern Peru (east of the Río Marañon in Peru in the departments of Amazonas and nw San Martín) and the Paramo Tapaculo occurs high in the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia.


Utcubamba Tapaculo Scytalopus intermedius is split into:

  • Utcubamba Tapaculo Scytalopus intermedius [map] [media] [my records]
  • Blackish Tapaculo Scytalopus latrans [map] [media] [my records]
    • Blackish Tapaculo (Blackish) Scytalopus latrans latrans [map] [media]
    • Blackish Tapaculo (Pacific) Scytalopus latrans subcinereus [map] [media]

As with many Scytalopus, including the one above, the plumages of the two species are nearly identical but the vocalizations and genetics are distinctive, and the ranges do not overlap. Utcubamba Tapaculo is a new endemic for Peru, occurring east of the Río Marañon in the departments of Amazonas and nw San Martín, while the Blackish Tapaculo ranges throughout the Andes from northern Peru to southern Venezuela.


Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis is split into:

  • Mayan Antthrush Formicarius moniliger [map] [media] [my records]
  • Black-faced Antthrush Formicarius analis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Black-faced Antthrush (Central American) Formicarius analis [hoffmanni Group] [map] [media]
    • Black-faced Antthrush (Black-faced) Formicarius analis [analis Group] [map] [media]

Vocalizations are often strong indicators of species limits in antthrushes and this long-anticipated split recognizes the significant vocal differences between the more northerly birds (Mayan), which tend to give multi-note songs as opposed to the three or four-noted songs of the birds in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and South America.


Tawny-throated Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus is split into:

  • Middle American Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Middle American Leaftosser (Mexican) Sclerurus mexicanus mexicanus [map] [media]
    • Middle American Leaftosser (Costa Rican) Sclerurus mexicanus pullus [map] [media]
  • South American Leaftosser Sclerurus obscurior [map] [media] [my records]
    • South American Leaftosser (Andean) Sclerurus obscurior andinus [map] [media]
    • South American Leaftosser (Dusky) Sclerurus obscurior obscurior [map] [media]
    • South American Leaftosser (Amazonian) Sclerurus obscurior peruvianus [map] [media]
    • South American Leaftosser (Guianan) Sclerurus obscurior macconnelli [map] [media]
    • South American Leaftosser (Atlantic) Sclerurus obscurior bahiae [map] [media]

The names describe the ranges of the two species quite well, but note that South American Leaftosser just barely sneaks into North America, occurring in eastern Panama and the Canal Zone.

Since these two taxa may come in contact in eastern and central Panama, and the ranges of the two remain a bit unclear, a slash option is also available for uncertain records.

  • Middle American/South American Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus/obscurior [map] [media]

Red-billed Woodcreeper Hylexetastes perrotii is split into:

  • Red-billed Woodcreeper Hylexetastes perrotii [map] [media] [my records]
  • Uniform Woodcreeper Hylexetastes uniformis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Uniform Woodcreeper (Uniform) Hylexetastes uniformis uniformis [map] [media]
    • Uniform Woodcreeper (Brigida’s) Hylexetastes uniformis brigidai [map] [media]

Split by the most impressive river in South America, populations of Red-billed Woodcreeer north of the Amazon retain the name Red-billed Woodcreeper while the ones south of the Amazon are recognized as a separate species, Uniform Woodcreeper.


Necklaced Spinetail Synallaxis stictothorax is split into:

  • Necklaced Spinetail Synallaxis stictothorax [map] [media] [my records]
    • Necklaced Spinetail (undescribed form) Synallaxis stictothorax [undescribed La Libertad form] [map] [media]
  • Chinchipe Spinetail Synallaxis chinchipensis [map] [media] [my records]

Well-separated in range, Necklaced Spinetail occurs in coastal northwestern Peru and southern Ecuador while Chinchipe Spinetail is restricted to the Marañón and Chinchipe valleys. Chinchipe Spinetail also has a distinctive voice and is recognized as yet another Peruvian endemic.


McConnell’s Flycatcher Mionectes macconnelli is split into:

  • McConnell’s Flycatcher Mionectes macconnelli [map] [media] [my records]
    • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Guianan) Mionectes macconnelli macconnelli [map] [media]
    • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Inambari) Mionectes macconnelli amazonus/peruanus [map] [media]
  • Sierra de Lema Flycatcher Mionectes roraimae [map] [media] [my records]

Sierra de Lema Flycatcher is known from higher elevations in the tepui region of Venezuela, extreme northern Brazil, and Guyana and is separated from the more widespread McConnell’s Flycatcher.


Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant Euscarthmus meloryphus is split into:

The distinctive genus Euscarthmus gains one more species (now three species in the genus) as Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant is split into a species endemic to dry areas west of the Andes in sw Ecuador and nw Peru, the Fulvous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant, and another widespread one, Rufous-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, with populations in drier forest north of the Amazon in Colombia and Venezuela and drier forest well south of Amazonia in se. Brazil, Uruguay, Parguay, Bolivia, and n Argentina. These were formerly recognized as subspecies groups, Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-fronted) Euscarthmus meloryphus fulviceps and Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-crowned) Euscarthmus meloryphus meloryphus/paulus, respectively.


Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus is split into:

  • Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Vermilion Flycatcher (Northern) Pyrocephalus rubinus [mexicanus Group] [map] [media]
    • Vermilion Flycatcher (saturatus) Pyrocephalus rubinus saturatus [map] [media]
    • Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group) Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group] [map] [media]
    • Vermilion Flycatcher (Austral) Pyrocephalus rubinus rubinus [map] [media]
  • Brujo Flycatcher Pyrocephalus nanus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Brujo Flycatcher (Galapagos) Pyrocephalus nanus nanus [map] [media]
    • Brujo Flycatcher (San Cristobal) Pyrocephalus nanus dubius [map] [media]

Brujo Flycatcher adds yet another endemic to the Galapagos. The name Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus remains for the remainder of the population from the southern US to Argentina, although differences in vocalizations, migratory behavior, and very subtle plumage characters could indicate further splits in both current species the future.


Graceful Honeyeater Meliphaga gracilis is split into:

Very similar in plumage and easier to separate by voice, Cryptic Honeyeater occurs from Cooktown south (including in the Cairns area) while Graceful Honeyeater occurs on the Cape York Peninsula and New Guinea.


Little Shrikethrush Colluricincla megarhyncha is completely revised and split into seven different species, as follows:

One would need to travel to New Guinea or adjacent islands to observe most of these new species, but two occur in Australia: Rufous Shrikethrush along the east coast (NSW, Queensland and just into Northern Territory along the Gulf of Carpentaria) and Arafura Shrikethrush in the Top End of the Northern Territory and Kimberley regions.


Chinese Gray Shrike Lanius sphenocercus is split into:

Chinese Gray Shrike is widespread in northeast Asia and migratory, with birds moving to south China for the winter. Giant Shrike, in comparison, is endemic to the eastern Tibetan Plateau and non-migratory—although it may engage in downslope movements in winter. The two don’t overlap as breeders, but may overlap in migration and winter. Each is actually quite distinctive in plumage; Giant Shrike has darker plumage, a more extensive mask, and considerably less white in the wing, while Chinese Gray Shrike has a reduced mask and extra white that extends into the inner secondaries, creating a distinctive white slash.

Since they do overlap in winter, use of this slash is recommended for birds seen poorly or in silhouette–or old field notes that did not note the subspecies or plumage features.

  • Chinese Gray/Giant Shrike Lanius sphenocercus/giganteus [map] [media]

Dunn’s Lark Eremalauda dunni is split into:

Although these two do not normally overlap, vagrants can be tricky to assign to species. Note that a well-photographed Cyprus record is believed to be Dunn’s Lark from Africa, so long distance vagrancy is possible in this species pair.

Although these two do not normally overlap, vagrants can be tricky to assign to species, so a slash option is provided. Note that a well-photographed Cyprus record is believed to be Dunn’s Lark from Africa, so long distance vagrancy is possible in this species pair.

  • Dunn’s/Arabian Lark Eremalauda dunni/eremodites [map] [media]

Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens is split into:

The two new species are very tough to identify visually (vocalizations will help) but usually segregate by range, though both may be represented among vagrant records in western and northern Europe.

Since these two are nearly indistinguishable, except for certain vocalizations, a slash option can be used for vagrants or birds near and area of overlap.

  • Mediterranean/Turkestan Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens/heinei [map] [media]

Brown Prinia Prinia polychroa and Striated Prinia Prinia crinigera are reassessed and subdivided into five species, as follows:

Burmese Prinia is a Myanmar endemic while Annam Prinia is restricted to the Langbian Plateau, a region of high endemism in Vietnam. Striated Prinia is split into Himalayan Prinia, in the western ortion of the species’s former range from Pakistan to sw. China, while Striped Prinia occurs in the remainder of China and Taiwan. After these changes, and a shift of one subspecies to Striped Prinia, the range of Brown Prinia is now restricted to Laos, Thailand, and Cambodia, with another population in Java.


Graceful Prinia Prinia gracilis is split into Graceful Prinia Prinia gracilis and Delicate Prinia Prinia lepida.

These similar-looking species do have consistent differences in vocalizations and genetics. Delicate Prinia is the more northerly species, occurring from Turkey east to India, through northern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, and northern Oman and east to Pakistan, India, and Nepal. Graceful Prinia is now restricted to north Africa and much of the remainder of the Arabian peninsula (including southern Oman).


Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler Locustella castanea is split into:

Seram and Buru continue their track record for endemism, as their versions of Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler are each recognized as yet another single island endemic, precipitating a name change to Sulawesi Bush Warbler for the remainder of the population which itself is restricted to the larger island of Sulawesi.


Little Rush-Warbler Bradypterus baboecala is split into:

Generally restricted to higher elevation swamps in central Africa, Highland Rush Warbler is split from the more widespread Little Rush Warbler, which occurs from swamps of west Africa (where recently discovered and maybe of an unknown subspecies) to Ethiopia and south to South Africa.


Gray-cheeked Bulbul Alophoixus bres is split into:

Brown-cheeked Bulbul is endemic to Java and Bali. Gray-cheeked Bulbul occurs on Sumatra, the mainland from Myanmar to the Malaysia Peninsula, and Borneo.


Ochraceous Bulbul Alophoixus ochraceus is split into:

Penan Bulbul of Borneo is split from Ochraceous Bulbul which occurs throughout the remainder of the range in SE Asia.


Island Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus maforensis is split into:

Two new island endemics off New Guinea; note that Numfor Leaf Warbler takes the species epithet maforensis, so the scientific name of Island Leaf Warbler changes. This necessitates a name change to Island Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus poliocephalus. Additional splits within the Island Leaf Warbler complex can be expected in the future.

Island Leaf Warbler has a lot of subspecies, as follows:

    • Island Leaf Warbler (Peleng) Phylloscopus poliocephalus suaramerdu [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Taliabu) Phylloscopus poliocephalus emilsalimi [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Halmahera) Phylloscopus poliocephalus henrietta [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Bacan) Phylloscopus poliocephalus waterstradti [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Buru) Phylloscopus poliocephalus everetti [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Seram) Phylloscopus poliocephalus ceramensis [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (Kai) Phylloscopus poliocephalus avicola [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (New Guinea) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [poliocephalus Group] [map] [media]
    • Island Leaf Warbler (South Pacific) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [matthiae Group] [map] [media]

Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans is split into:

This is the second round of recent splits in this complex, following the recently recognition of Moltoni’s Warbler Sylvia subalpina. These two species differ subtly: watch for differences in the breadth of the malar area, back color, and the color of the underparts between Eastern Subalpine Warbler and Western Subalpine Warbler. In some plumages, they may not be identifiable. The subspecies inornata is now synonymized with iberiae as well, so observers familiar with that subspecies should be aware that it is now the same as Western Subalpine Warbler.

Two slashes may be useful for birds of uncertain identity.

  • Western/Eastern Subalpine Warbler Curruca iberiae/cantillans [map] [media]
  • Moltoni’s/Western/Eastern Subalpine Warbler Curruca subalpina/iberiae/cantillans [map] [media]

Abyssinian White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus is split into:

Socotra White-eye is nearly endemic to Socotra, but may also be found in mainland Africa in north Somalia.


African Yellow White-eye Zosterops senegalensis is split into:

  • Forest White-eye Zosterops stenocricotus [map] [media] [my records]
  • Green White-eye Zosterops stuhlmanni [map] [media] [my records]
  • Northern Yellow White-eye Zosterops senegalensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • Northern Yellow White-eye (senegalensis/demeryi) Zosterops senegalensis senegalensis/demeryi [map] [media]
      • Northern Yellow White-eye (quanzae Group) Zosterops senegalensis [quanzae Group] [map] [media]
      • Northern Yellow White-eye (jacksoni/gerhardi) Zosterops senegalensis jacksoni/gerhardi [map] [media]
  • Southern Yellow White-eye Zosterops anderssoni [map] [media] [my records]

White-eyes continue to be more and more recognized for their impressive levels of speciation, with four secies recognized within African Yellow White-eye, following a big slate of Zosterops splits in 2019. Watch for Forest White-eye in wetter forests of se. Nigeria, Bioko, Cameroon and Gabon, for Green White-eye in lowland areas near Lake Victoria, Northern Yellow White-eye widely from Senegal to Kenya, and Southern Yellow White-eye from Tanzania southwards.


Lemon-bellied White-eye Zosterops chloris is split into:

Wakatobi is an archipelago of over 150 islands south of Sulawesi, but they are unique enough to host this new endemic that is split from the more widespread Lemon-bellied White-eye.


Solomons White-eye Zosterops kulambangrae is split into:

The oxymoronic Dark-eyed White-eye, of Rendova and Tetipare islands, is split from Solomons White-eye, which is more widespread in the archipelago. Both species have brownish irides, but differ in the presence of a broken white eye ring, which Solomons White-eye has and which most Zosterops have (hence the name, “white-eye”); the white eye ring is lacking in Dark-eyed White-eye.


Limestone Wren-Babbler Turdinus crispifrons is split into:

As with many splits in 2021, it was a careful analysis of genetics in combination with vocalizations that has redefined the species limits in Limestone Wren-Babbler (and precipitated a change to the use of Limestone Babbler for this genus, which has itself is new in this update). This species is actually more different in plumage within one species–Variable Limestone Babbler, which can have white or gray underparts–than it is between species, so using plumage to define the species here might have been misleading.

While these species may not actually overlap in range, but there remains uncertainty about the exact distribution of each taxon, so we provide a spuh for uncertain records.

  • limestone babbler sp. Gypsophila annamensis/calcicola/crispifrons [map] [media]

Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta pusilla is split into:

New research documenting vocal differences between mainland and Bahama birds suggest that they are two different species. The Bahama Nuthatch faces an uncertain future—as recently as 2018 only a few individuals remained. The pine forests on Grand Bahama where the Bahama Nuthatch resides continue to be battered by severe hurricanes. The most recent hurricane in September 2019 (Hurricane Dorian) destroyed much of the remaining habitat. Extensive searching following Dorian failed to turn up a single Bahama Nuthatch, leaving some to fear that the species may be extinct.


Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea is split into:

  • Tropical Gnatcatcher Polioptila plumbea [map] [media] [my records]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (plumbiceps/anteocularis) Polioptila plumbea plumbiceps/anteocularis [map] [media]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (Marañon) Polioptila plumbea maior [map] [media]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (innotata) Polioptila plumbea innotata [map] [media]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (plumbea) Polioptila plumbea plumbea [map] [media]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (parvirostris) Polioptila plumbea parvirostris [map] [media]
    • Tropical Gnatcatcher (atricapilla) Polioptila plumbea atricapilla [map] [media]
  • White-browed Gnatcatcher Polioptila bilineata [map] [media] [my records]

This split recognizes the distinctive plumage, vocalizations, and genetics of the White-browed Gnatcatcher that occurs in Middle America and the drier habitats west of the Andes. Further splits in Tropical Gnatcatcher are likely, as suggested by our multiple subspecies groups above.


Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis is split into:

  • Sedge Wren Cistothorus stellaris [map] [media] [my records]
  • Grass Wren Cistothorus platensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Grass Wren (Northern) Cistothorus platensis [elegans Group] [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Venezuelan) Cistothorus platensis alticola [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Paramo) Cistothorus platensis aequatorialis [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Junin) Cistothorus platensis graminicola [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Puna) Cistothorus platensis minimus [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Tucuman) Cistothorus platensis tucumanus [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Pampas) Cistothorus platensis platensis/polyglottus [map] [media]
    • Grass Wren (Austral) Cistothorus platensis hornensis/falklandicus [map] [media]

This split recognizes the distinctive song, plumage, and migratory behavior of each species. The migratory Sedge Wren breeds in central-northern North America and winters in the southern US; it sings a fairly uniform song, while the non-migratory Grass Wren occurs from Mexico to South America and sings a more complex song. The two species co-occur only in Mexico in the northeastern state of Veracruz (though at opposite ends of the state, not at a single site). Further splits are possible within Grass Wren, so try to find the different forms on any travels within South America.


Spotted Nightingale-Thrush Catharus dryas is split into:

These two species are very similar in plumage but are widely disjunct in range, with Yellow-throated Nightingale-Thrush occurring in Middle America and Speckled in the Andes of South America.


Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas is split into:

With this split, Javan Blue Flycatcher becomes a critically endangered species given its rare and declining population on Java, which (like many species) is suffering from illegal bird trapping in the region; it is considered a Sensitive Species in eBird due to this threat.


Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina is split into:

Endemic to a few islands in the Ryukyu island chain of Japan, Ryukyu Flycatcher, which appeared in eBird previously as Narcissus Flycatcher (Green-crowned), can be identified in its male plumage by its greenish upperparts, including the back and crown. Although it is largely resident, it has strayed north, south, and west of its home islands and it is also important to identify your Ficedula with care because both Narcissus Flycatcher and Ryukyu Flycatcher may occur on the same islands in migration.

Since Ryukyu does show some irregular movements away from its breeding islands, since Narcissus Flycatcher may occur within the breeding range of Ryukyu Flycatcher in migration, and since birds that are not adult males are really challenging to identify, we provide a slash for conservative reporting.


Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maurus is split into:

  • Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maurus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Siberian Stonechat (Caspian) Saxicola maurus hemprichii [map] [media]
    • Siberian Stonechat (Siberian) Saxicola maurus [maurus Group] [map] [media]
    • Siberian Stonechat (Przevalski’s) Saxicola maurus przewalskii [map] [media]
  • Amur Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri [map] [media] [my records]

Amur Stonechat, sometimes also known as Stejneger’s Stonechat, breeds in northeast Asia and winters broadly in Southeast Asia. It can be very challenging to separate from some taxa of Siberian Stonechat, especially since both species are prone to long-distance vagrancy.


Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica is split into:

Although these species are largely separated by range, wheatears can be challenging to identify both on their breeding and winter ranges and these two species may come in contact or overlap slightly. Moreover, both occur as strays outside their core range. Use caution when ID is uncertain.

These can be challenging to identify, both breeding and winter ranges may come in contact or overlap slightly, and both occur as strays outside their core range. Use the slash when uncertain!

  • Western/Eastern Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica/melanoleuca [map] [media] [my records]

Streak-headed Munia Lonchura tristissima is split into:

Fairly distinctive in plumage, these two populations on New Guinea are hereby recognized as distinct species.The two species come in contact, so a slash is provided when records are uncertain.

  • Streak-headed/White-spotted Munia Mayrimunia tristissima/leucosticta [map] [media] [my records]

Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis is split into:

Nicholson’s Pipit occupies the southern third of Africa while the Long-billed Pipit occurs from Kenya north through the Middle East and east to India. Throughout the range of the Long-billed Pipit many distinctive forms exist, hence there may be additional splits in the future as more data becomes available.

Long-billed Pipit has a large number of subspecies options; the East African group below is a new group, since our previous Nicholson’s group was not aligned with the species limits.


Scrub Euphonia Euphonia affinis is split into:

West Mexican Euphonia differs in genetics, subtly in some vocalizations, and in its white (vs. yellow) undertail coverts. It adds an endemic species to Mexico.


Gray-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erythaca is split into:

Taiwan gains yet another endemic; Gray-headed Bullfinch is now restricted to the eastern Himalaya.


Stripe-capped Sparrow Rhynchospiza strigiceps is split into:

There are differences in face pattern (more black around the face and a broader malar in Yungas Sparrow) but the species remain very similar. Fortunately, they have different habitats and regions of occurrence.

The two mostly don’t occur in the same areas, but a slash is provided for areas that may be between known areas of occurrence or otherwise uncertain records.

  • Yungas/Chaco Sparrow Rhynchospiza dabbenei/strigiceps [map] [media]

Saffron-billed Sparrow Arremon dorbignii is split into:

  • Moss-backed Sparrow Arremon dorbignii [map] [media] [my records]
  • Saffron-billed Sparrow Arremon flavirostris [map] [media] [my records]
    • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Gray-backed) Arremon flavirostris polionotus [map] [media]
    • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Saffron-billed) Arremon flavirostris flavirostris [map] [media]

Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons is split into:

Although the two may co-occur at some of the same sites in Guatemala, Chestnut-capped predominantly occurs on the Pacific slope of Chiapas and Guatemala, and in from central Guatemala south to South America. Rufous-capped is the only species in Belize and much of Mexico (with vagrants and occasional breeding pairs in the southwest US). In addition to different songs, Chestnut-capped has more chestnut in the ear coverts and also has distinctive yellow throughout the underparts, while Rufous-capped has a whitish or grayish belly in all subspecies (salvini has somewhat more extensive yellow).


Puerto Rican Bullfinch Melopyrrha portoricensis is split into:

St. Kitts Bullfinch is substantially larger and has other plumage differences that merit recognition as a separate species. The only endemic species for St. Kitts, the St. Kitts Bullfinch is unfortunately believed extinct (last recorded in the 1920s) and was only ever known from the highest mountain peaks of St. Kitts—an area where few people visit. This is a bird worth searching for!


Grayish Saltator Saltator coerulescens is split into:

Grayish Saltator was one of the more widespread passerines in the Neotropics, occurring from northern Mexico to Argentina. New research examining genetic, vocal, and plumage differences demonstrate that the Grayish Slatator is composed of three species: Cinnamon-bellied Saltator, occurring from northern Mexico to western Costa Rica; Olivaceous Saltator, occurring from northern Colombia to Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, and adjacent northern Brazil; and Blue-gray Saltator occurring across most of Amazonia, from eastern Colombia, to Bolivia and northern Argentina, including much of Brazil.

Olivaceous and Blue-gray Saltator may come in contact along the east slope of the Andes, so we retain the slash for any records in this area that may be uncertain:

  • Olivaceous/Blue-gray Saltator Saltator olivascens/coerulescens [map] [media]

LUMPS and INVALID SPECIES

In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.


Vaurie’s Nightjar Caprimulgus centralasicus, known only from a single specimen from Xinjiang, China, is now thought to be an unusual plumage of juvenile Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus [map] [media] [my records]


In South America, Chapman’s Swift Chaetura chapmani and Amazonian Swift Chaetura viridipennis are now believed to represent two subspecies within Chapman’s Swift Chaetura chapmani [map] [media] [my records]

These two taxa were formerly separable only by range and subtle measurements. The range of Chapman’s Swift expands considerably to include central and southern Amazonia, south to northern Argentina.


In Africa, Schouteden’s Swift Schoutedenapus schoutedeni type specimens were demonstrated to pertain to Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus [map] [media] [my records]


In northeastern Brazil, Tawny Piculet Picumnus fulvescens is lumped with Ochraceous Piculet Picumnus limae [map] [media] [my records]

These forms differ primarily in their underparts coloration (whitish in Ochraceous and tawny, unsurprisingly, in Tawny). However, their calls do not differ, both types occur together and seem to interbreed, and fulvescens is better considered a synonym of limae. The Tawny Piculet is no longer recognized even as a subspecies.


Widespread in the Americas, Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway and Southern Caracara Caracara plancus are once again lumped as Crested Caracara Caracara plancus [map] [media] [my records]

In 2000, the Crested Caracara Caracara plancus was split based on differences in plumage characteristics. But new evidence suggests that split was premature. Physical differences between the two taxa are fairly subtle (more white barring on the back for Southern Caracara) and—as both expand their ranges in South American due to deforestation—they interbreed freely where the ranges overlap, suggesting that full species status is not warranted.

eBird subspecies groups are retained for these, but should be used with caution especially in regions of South America where both taxa may occur.

  • Crested Caracara Caracara plancus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Crested Caracara (Northern) Caracara plancus [cheriway Group] [map] [media]
    • Crested Caracara (Southern) Caracara plancus plancus [map] [media]

Rondonia Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus fuscicapillus and Layard’s Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes layardi show minimal plumage and vocal differences and are are hereby lumped as Dusky-capped Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus [map] [media] [my records]

Each subspecies group can still be reported to eBird.

  • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Rondonia) Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus fuscicapillus [map] [media]
    • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Layard’s) Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus layardi [map] [media]

In Australia, Pilbara Grasswren Amytornis whitei and Sandhill Grasswren Amytornis whitei oweni are lumped as Rufous Grasswren Amytornis whitei [map] [media] [my records], but are retained as subspecies groups for eBird reporting.

  • Rufous Grasswren Amytornis whitei [map] [media] [my records]
    • Rufous Grasswren (Pilbara) Amytornis whitei whitei [map] [media]
    • Rufous Grasswren (Sandhill) Amytornis whitei oweni [map] [media]

Northwestern Crow Corvus caurinus is lumped with American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos [map] [media] [my records].

Restricted to the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the Pacific Coast of Canada, and southeastern Alaska, Northwestern Crow has always been a controversial entity, especially at the southern margins of its range where it is believed to hybridize extensively with American Crow. New genetic data highlight the extent of that hybridization, suggesting that Northwestern Crow does not warrant species status and should be lumped with the widespread American Crow.


NEW SPECIES

Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.


A suite of new tapaculos are described; note that Jalca Tapaculo was available as “Millpo Tapaculo (undescribed form)” and Loja Tapaculo as “Paramo Tapaculo (androstictus).” Ampay Tapaculo had been available in eBird as “Ampay Tapaculo (undescribed form)” and also as “Ayacucho Tapaculo (undescribed form),” which highlights that “undescribed taxa are always somewhat speculative. White-winged Tapaculo was much more of a surprise and did not previously have a taxon available for data entry.

  • Ampay Tapaculo Scytalopus whitneyi [map] [media] [my records]
    • Andes of s-central Peru (Apurímac)
  • Jalca Tapaculo Scytalopus frankeae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Andes of central Peru (Pasco and Junín)
  • White-winged Tapaculo Scytalopus krabbei [map] [media] [my records]
    • east slope of the Andes of northern Peru (Amazonas, south of the Marañón River, to Huánuco, north of the Huallaga River)
  • Loja Tapaculo Scytalopus androstictus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Andes of se Ecuador and extreme n Peru

Alor Myzomela is newly described and replaces Alor Myzomela (undescribed form) in eBird:


Taliabu Myzomela is newly described and replaces Taliabu Myzomela (undescribed form) in eBird:


Peleng Fantail is newly described and replaces “Peleng Fantail (undescribed form)” in eBird:


Two new cisticolas were described from the same wetland complex in Tanzania in the same paper. These were previously recognized in eBird as undescribed species, so Kilombero Cisticola (undescribed form) and White-tailed Cisticola (undescribed form) are hereby promoted to formally named taxa: Kilombero Cisticola Cisticola bakerorum and White-tailed Cisticola Cisticola anderseni. Both are extremely range restricted and of high conservation concern; be sure to check out Linda Macaulay’s audio recordings of these two species!


Talibu Bush Warbler is newly described and replaces “Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler (undescribed form)” in eBird.


Spectacled Flowerpecker is newly described and replaces “Spectacled Flowerpecker (undescribed form)” in eBird:


See also the Rufous Antpitta split above. Instead of listing some taxa as newly described, it made more sense to include them among a range-wide set of splits for Rufous and Chestnut Antpittas. However, for clerical purposes, these were technically newly-described taxa from that same paper which we are also recognizing as species: Oxapampa Antpitta Grallaria centralis, Ayacucho Antpitta Grallaria ayacuchensis, Puno Antpitta Grallaria sinaensis, Chami Antpitta Grallaria alvarezi, Chachapoyas Antpitta Grallaria gravesi, and Panao Antpitta Grallaria oneilli.


One of the most recent discoveries, described to science only in June 2021, is the Satin Berrypecker Melanocharis citreola. This species occurs in western New Guinea, in the higher mountains of the Bird’s Neck Peninsula.


SUBSPECIES RESHUFFLES

When subspecies move around between species, this can have effects like splits or lumps. Thus, for a certain population within a species, the movement of the subspecies from one to another has important data quality implications and can significantly change the range of both species.

Prior to 2021, Western Whistler was aptly named and restricted to Western Australia, with no overlap with the other species. It also had two subspecies groups, which was needed because the females of Western were identifiable (not easily though!) and this merited the subspecies group Western Whistler (fuliginosa). New genetics revealed that fuliginosa is more closely related to Western Whistler. With the wider split, the subspecies groups are dissolved.

We do make occasional errors–in this case, we neglected to add a Western/Golden Whistler option, which would have been useful. Instead, remember that Pachycephala sp. is still available and is the best option for birds with uncertainty IDs.


Subspecies minor (SE Siberia and adjacent Manchuria), which we had placed with Reed Bunting, actually belongs with Pallas’s Bunting.

  • Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus
  • Pallas’s Bunting Emberiza pallasi

SHUFFLES OF OTHER TAXA and SUBSPECIES GROUP LUMPS

Revisions to eBird subspecies groups, and occasionally other taxa (like spuhs or slashes), can happen in our taxonomic update as well. This effectively changes the definition for these taxa and also changes how you should use them in reporting. To review your records of any of the subspecies groups below, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

An error was corrected with African Green-Pigeon (African) Treron calvus [calvus Group] since subspecies orientalis, with range “S Tanzania to Mozambique and lower Zambezi Valley”, is a junior synonym of delalandii. Thus the population within the range of orientalis had been placed in the former group, but has now been effectively moved to African Green-Pigeon (Gray-breasted) Treron calvus delalandii/granti; please do review your records to ensure that they are correct.

The enigmatic subspecies maxima, known from only a single specimen, is removed from the group Crested Coua (Crested) Coua cristata cristata/dumonti and is added to the group Crested Coua (Chestnut-vented) Coua cristata pyropyga/maxima. Since this form has never been seen in the wild, this really has no bearing on eBird data.

Subspecies pacaraimae, with range “Mts. of s Venezuela (Sierra de Pacaraima),” previously had been included in the group Green-bellied Hummingbird (Green-bellied) Saucerottia viridigaster viridigaster/iodura, but properly belongs in the group Green-bellied Hummingbird (Copper-tailed) Saucerottia viridigaster [cupreicauda Group].


NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS

See Appendix A below for the new subspecies groups that are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level.


NEW HYBRIDS and INTERGRADES

eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are sometimes followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies (the two new intergrades for 2021 are within White Wagtail and Lemon-rumped Tanager). Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

With Change Species, eBirders can quickly update their lists if you already have an entry of any of these (e.g., under duck sp. or hummingbird sp.)–just use “add species” to search for these taxa which are available but typically won’t be on default data entry checklists yet.

  • Wandering x Lesser Whistling-Duck (hybrid) Dendrocygna arcuata x javanica
  • Emperor x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid) Anser canagicus x albifrons
  • Ross’s x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid) Anser rossii x albifrons
  • Bar-headed x Barnacle Goose (hybrid) Anser indicus x Branta leucopsis
  • Lesser White-fronted x Barnacle Goose (hybrid) Anser erythropus x Branta leucopsis
  • Barnacle x Red-breasted Goose (hybrid) Branta leucopsis x ruficollis
  • Graylag Goose x Mute Swan (hybrid) Anser anser x Cygnus olor
  • Egyptian Goose x Ruddy Shelduck (hybrid) Alopochen aegyptiaca x Tadorna ferruginea
  • Baikal Teal x Falcated Duck (hybrid) Sibirionetta formosa x Mareca falcata
  • Gadwall x Falcated Duck (hybrid) Mareca strepera x falcata
  • Blue-winged Teal x American Wigeon (hybrid) Spatula discors x Mareca americana
  • Garganey x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Spatula querquedula x Anas crecca
  • Eurasian Wigeon x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Mareca penelope x Anas crecca
  • Red-crested x Common Pochard (hybrid) Netta rufina x Aythya ferina
  • Red-crested Pochard x Ferruginous Duck (hybrid) Netta rufina x Aythya nyroca
  • Mallard x Tufted Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya fuligula
  • Red-crested Pochard x Tufted Duck (hybrid) Netta rufina x Aythya fuligula
  • Canvasback x scaup sp. (hybrid) Aythya valisineria x marila/affinis
  • Common Goldeneye x Smew (hybrid) Bucephala clangula x Mergellus albellus
  • Smew x Hooded Merganser (hybrid) Mergellus albellus x Lophodytes cucullatus
  • Edwards’s x Silver Pheasant (hybrid) Lophura edwardsi x nycthemera
  • Indian x Green Peafowl (hybrid) Pavo cristatus x muticus
  • Chukar x Rock Partridge (hybrid) Alectoris chukar x graeca
  • European Turtle-Dove x Eurasian Collared-Dove (hybrid) Streptopelia turtur x decaocto
  • Buff-tailed x Velvet-purple Coronet (hybrid) Boissonneaua flavescens x jardini
  • Black-chinned x Costa’s Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus alexandri x Calypte costae
  • Rufous x Allen’s Hummingbird (hybrid) Selasphorus rufus x sasin
  • Rufous x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid) Selasphorus rufus x platycercus
  • Anna’s x Broad-billed Hummingbird (hybrid) Calypte anna x Cynanthus latirostris
  • Broad-billed x Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird (hybrid) Cynanthus latirostris x doubledayi
  • Eurasian Moorhen x Eurasian Coot (hybrid) Gallinula chloropus x Fulica atra
  • Common Gallinule x American Coot (hybrid) Gallinula galeata x Fulica americana
  • Slender-billed x Black-headed Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus genei x ridibundus
  • Gray-hooded x Laughing Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus x Leucophaeus atricilla
  • Black-headed x Common Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus ridibundus x Larus canus
  • Common x Ring-billed Gull (hybrid) Larus canus x delawarensis
  • Yellow-legged x Caspian Gull (hybrid) Larus michahellis x cachinnans
  • Yellow-legged x Lesser Black-backed Gull (hybrid) Larus michahellis x fuscus
  • Yellow-legged x Great Black-backed Gull (hybrid) Larus michahellis x marinus
  • Gray Heron x Great Egret (hybrid) Ardea cinerea x alba
  • Hen x Pallid Harrier (hybrid) Circus cyaneus x macrourus
  • Red-shouldered x Broad-winged Hawk (hybrid) Buteo lineatus x platypterus
  • Brown x Buffy Fish-Owl (hybrid) Ketupa zeylonensis x ketupu
  • Amazonian x Rufous Motmot (hybrid) Momotus momota x Baryphthengus martii
  • Tanimbar Corella x Yellow-crested Cockatoo (hybrid) Cacatua goffiniana x sulphurea
  • Salmon-crested x White Cockatoo (hybrid) Cacatua moluccensis x alba
  • Great Green x Scarlet Macaw (hybrid) Ara ambiguus x macao
  • Blue-and-yellow x Red-and-green Macaw (hybrid) Ara ararauna x chloropterus
  • Rondonia x Spix’s Warbling-Antbird (hybrid) Hypocnemis ochrogyna x striata
  • Tropical Kingbird x Fork-tailed Flycatcher (hybrid) Tyrannus melancholicus x Tyrannus savana
  • Superb x White-winged Fairywren (hybrid) Malurus cyaneus x leucopterus
  • Superb x Red-backed Fairywren (hybrid) Malurus cyaneus x melanocephalus
  • Yellow-throated x Blue-headed Vireo (hybrid) Vireo flavifrons x solitarius
  • Plumbeous x Blue-headed Vireo (hybrid) Vireo plumbeus x solitarius
  • Stephanie’s x Ribbon-tailed Astrapia (hybrid) Astrapia stephaniae x mayeri
  • Black-naped Monarch x Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (hybrid) Hypothymis azurea x Terpsiphone affinis
  • Tiger x Brown Shrike (hybrid) Lanius tigrinus x cristatus
  • House x Fish Crow (hybrid) Corvus splendens x ossifragus
  • Pied x Somali Crow (hybrid) Corvus albus x edithae
  • Vinous-throated x Ashy-throated Parrotbill (hybrid) Sinosuthora webbiana x alphonsiana
  • Black-collared Starling x Great Myna (hybrid) Gracupica nigricollis x Acridotheres grandis
  • Common x Great Myna (hybrid) Acridotheres tristis x grandis
  • California x Crissal Thrasher (hybrid) Toxostoma redivivum x crissale
  • Semicollared x European Pied Flycatcher (hybrid) Ficedula semitorquata x hypoleuca
  • Semicollared x Collared Flycatcher (hybrid) Ficedula semitorquata x albicollis
  • Streak-headed x White-spotted Munia (hybrid) Mayrimunia tristissima x leucosticta
  • White Wagtail (Chinese x Hodgson’s) Motacilla alba leucopsis x alboides
  • Song x Lincoln’s Sparrow (hybrid) Melospiza melodia x lincolnii
  • Chestnut-capped Brushfinch x Spotted Towhee (hybrid) Arremon brunneinucha x Pipilo maculatus
  • Canyon x Spotted Towhee (hybrid) Melozone fusca x Pipilo maculatus
  • Black-faced x Bolivian Brushfinch (hybrid) Atlapetes melanolaemus x rufinucha
  • Black-vented x Streak-backed Oriole (hybrid) Icterus wagleri x pustulatus
  • Yellow-breasted Chat x new world oriole sp. (hybrid) Icteria virens x Icterus sp.
  • Common x Great-tailed Grackle (hybrid) Quiscalus quiscula x mexicanus
  • Blue-winged x Cerulean Warbler (hybrid) Vermivora cyanoptera x Setophaga cerulea
  • American Redstart x Yellow Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga ruticilla x petechia
  • Cerulean x Black-throated Blue Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga cerulea x caerulescens
  • Chestnut-sided x Black-throated Blue Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga pensylvanica x caerulescens
  • Yellow-rumped x Grace’s Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga coronata x graciae
  • Black-throated Gray x Hermit Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga nigrescens x occidentalis
  • Yellow-rumped x Black-throated Green Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga coronata x virens
  • Golden-crowned x Flavescent Warbler (hybrid) Basileuterus culicivorus x Myiothlypis flaveola
  • Red-crested x Red-capped Cardinal (hybrid) Paroaria coronata x gularis
  • Flame-rumped Tanager (Flame-rumped x Lemon-rumped) Ramphocelus flammigerus flammigerus x icteronotus
  • Flame-rumped x Scarlet-rumped Tanager (hybrid) Ramphocelus flammigerus x passerinii

NEW FORMS

Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., “Whimbrel (White-rumped)” below) and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes three undescribed forms which may be recognized as species in the future, a couple additional US options where two similar subspecies may be separated from other forms, but not from each other (Red-tailed Hawk and Iceland Gull), plus two coot forms from Hawaii. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Manui Fruit-Dove (undescribed form) Ptilinopus [undescribed form]
  • Lava Petrel (undescribed form) Pseudobulweria [undescribed form]
  • Inirida Antshrike (undescribed form) Thamnophilus [undescribed form]
  • Cali Antpitta (undescribed form) Grallaricula [undescribed Cali form]
  • Selayar Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) Phylloscopus [undescribed Selayar form]
  • Mindanao Shortwing (undescribed form) Brachypteryx (undescribed submontane Mindanao form)
  • Pied Wheatear (vittata) Oenanthe pleschanka (vittata form)
  • Variable Wheatear (Blyth’s) Oenanthe picata picata
  • Variable Wheatear (Gould’s) Oenanthe picata capistrata
  • Variable Wheatear (Strickland’s) Oenanthe picata opistholeuca
  • Tricolored Munia (Pale-flanked) Lonchura malacca (Pale-flanked)
  • Tricolored Munia (Dark-flanked) Lonchura malacca (Dark-flanked)
  • White Wagtail (White-faced/Transbaikalian) Motacilla alba alba/dukhunensis/baicalensis

NEW DOMESTICS

eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage, or less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. We have not added any domestics for 2021.

  • No additions for 2021

NEW SLASHES AND SPUHS

As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, Velvet Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • kiwi sp. Apteryx sp.
  • Yellow-billed Pintail/Yellow-billed Teal Anas georgica/flavirostris
  • Gray/Chestnut Teal Anas gracilis/castanea
  • wood-quail sp. Odontophorus sp.
  • Greater/Lesser Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus/Phoeniconaias minor
  • brown-dove sp. Phapitreron sp.
  • fruit-dove sp. Ptilinopus sp.
  • hawk-cuckoo sp. Hierococcyx sp.
  • owlet-nightjar sp. Aegotheles sp.
  • Common/African Swift Apus apus/barbatus
  • Green-backed/Juan Fernandez Firecrown Sephanoides sephaniodes/fernandensis
  • Green-headed/Black-breasted Hillstar Oreotrochilus stolzmanni/melanogaster
  • Dusky/Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird Phaeoptila sordida/Cynanthus doubledayi
  • Broad-billed/Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird Cynanthus latirostris/doubledayi
  • Saucerottia sp. Saucerottia sp.
  • Buff-bellied/Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia yucatanensis/tzacatl
  • Glittering-throated/Sapphire-spangled Emerald Chionomesa fimbriata/lactea
  • White-bellied/Green-and-white Hummingbird Elliotomyia chionogaster/viridicauda
  • wood-rail sp. Aramides sp.
  • Kentish/White-faced Plover Charadrius alexandrinus/dealbatus
  • Common/Little Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula/dubius
  • Bar-tailed/Black-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica/limosa
  • Hudsonian/Marbled Godwit Limosa haemastica/fedoa
  • Great/Red Knot Calidris tenuirostris/canutus
  • Spotted/Common Redshank Tringa erythropus/totanus
  • Black-billed/Silver Gull Chroicocephalus bulleri/novaehollandiae
  • Brown-hooded/Gray-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis/cirrocephalus
  • Common/Short-billed Gull Larus canus/brachyrhynchus
  • Herring/Yellow-legged/Caspian Gull Larus argentatus/michahellis/cachinnans
  • Sternula sp. Sternula sp.
  • Royal/West African Crested Tern Thalasseus maximus/albididorsalis
  • White-bellied/Black-bellied Storm-Petrel Fregetta grallaria/tropica
  • storm-petrel sp. (dark-rumped) Oceanitidae/Hydrobatidae sp. (dark-rumped)
  • storm-petrel sp. (white-rumped) Oceanitidae/Hydrobatidae sp. (white-rumped)
  • Yellow/Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis/cinnamomeus
  • tiger-heron sp. Tigrisoma sp.
  • Intermediate/Cattle Egret Ardea intermedia/Bubulcus ibis
  • pond-heron sp. Ardeola sp.
  • snake-eagle sp. Circaetus sp.
  • Eurasian/Eastern Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus/spilonotus
  • Eurasian Sparrowhawk/Northern Goshawk Accipiter nisus/gentilis
  • Black/Brahminy Kite Milvus migrans/Haliastur indus
  • Eurasian/Cyprus Scops-Owl Otus scops/cyprius
  • Strix sp. Strix sp.
  • pygmy-owl/saw-whet owl sp. Glaucidium/Aegolius sp. (pygmy-owl/saw-whet owl sp.)
  • Rhinoceros/Great Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros/bicornis
  • Indian/Malabar Gray Hornbill Ocyceros birostris/griseus
  • Common/Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo atthis/meninting
  • bee-eater sp. Merops sp.
  • Green-eared/Lineated Barbet Psilopogon faiostrictus/lineatus
  • Thick-billed/Lesser Honeyguide Indicator conirostris/minor
  • Rufous/White-browed Piculet Sasia abnormis/ochracea
  • Amur Falcon/Eurasian Hobby Falco amurensis/subbuteo
  • black-cockatoo sp. Calyptorhynchus sp.
  • pygmy-parrot sp. Micropsitta sp.
  • tiger-parrot sp. Psittacella sp.
  • Ornate/Elegant/Banda Sea Pitta Pitta concinna/elegans/vigorsii
  • Muisca/Equatorial Antpitta Grallaria rufula/saturata
  • Middle American/South American Leaftosser Sclerurus mexicanus/obscurior
  • tit-spinetail sp. Leptasthenura sp.
  • McConnell’s/Sierra de Lema Flycatcher Mionectes macconnelli/roraimae
  • scrub-flycatcher sp. Sublegatus sp.
  • black-tyrant sp. Knipolegus sp.
  • chat-tyrant sp. Ochthoeca sp.
  • Australasian catbird sp. Ailuroedus sp.
  • Tui/New Zealand Bellbird Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae/Anthornis melanura
  • mouse-warbler sp. Crateroscelis sp.
  • jewel-babbler sp. Ptilorrhoa sp.
  • Large/Black-headed Cuckooshrike Coracina macei/Lalage melanoptera
  • Arafura/Rufous Shrikethrush Colluricincla megarhyncha/rufogaster
  • Lesser/Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus remifer/paradiseus
  • Bay-backed/Long-tailed Shrike Lanius vittatus/schach
  • green-magpie sp. Cissa sp.
  • Rufous/Gray Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda/formosae
  • American/Fish Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos/ossifragus
  • Cape/Agulhas Lark Certhilauda curvirostris/brevirostris
  • long-billed lark sp. Certhilauda sp.
  • Mongolian Short-toed/Hume’s Lark Calandrella dukhunensis/acutirostris
  • Alaudala sp. Alaudala sp.
  • Crested/Malabar Lark Galerida cristata/malabarica
  • Galerida sp. Galerida sp.
  • Burmese/Brown Prinia Prinia cooki/polychroa
  • Graceful/Delicate Prinia Prinia gracilis/lepida
  • Black-browed/Manchurian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps/tangorum
  • Blunt-winged/Manchurian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus concinens/tangorum
  • Paddyfield/Blunt-winged/Blyth’s/Large-billed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus agricola/concinens/dumetorum/orinus
  • Helopsaltes sp. Helopsaltes sp.
  • Locustella sp. Locustella sp.
  • Gray-breasted/Southern Martin Progne chalybea/elegans
  • Eurasian/Dusky Crag-Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris/concolor
  • Hirundo sp. Hirundo sp.
  • house-martin sp. Delichon sp.
  • Buff-vented/Olive Bulbul Iole crypta/viridescens
  • bush warbler sp. Horornis sp.
  • Curruca sp. Curruca sp.
  • Swinhoe’s/Warbling White-eye Zosterops simplex/japonicus
  • Green/Northern Yellow White-eye Zosterops stuhlmanni/senegalensis
  • white-eye sp. Zosteropidae sp.
  • Ruby-crowned/Golden-crowned Kinglet Corthylio calendula/Regulus satrapa
  • wood-wren sp. Henicorhina sp.
  • Russet/Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush Catharus occidentalis/frantzii
  • scrub-robin sp. Cercotrichas sp.
  • blue flycatcher sp. Cyornis sp.
  • robin-chat sp. Cossypha sp.
  • rock-thrush sp. Monticola sp.
  • Siberian/Amur Stonechat Saxicola maurus/stejnegeri
  • Bohemian/Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus/japonica
  • Eastern Yellow/Citrine Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis/citreola
  • Taiwan/Gray-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula owstoni/erythaca
  • Ortolan/Cretzschmar’s Bunting Emberiza hortulana/caesia
  • Atlapetes sp. Atlapetes sp.
  • Chipping Sparrow/Worm-eating Warbler Spizella passerina/Helmitheros vermivorum
  • Dark-eyed Junco/Pine Warbler Junco hyemalis/Setophaga pinus
  • Rufous-capped/Chestnut-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons/delattrii
  • sparrow/warbler sp. (trilling song) Passerellidae/Parulidae sp. (trilling song)
  • ant-tanager sp. Habia sp.
  • Glaucous-blue/Ultramarine Grosbeak Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea/brissonii
  • inca-finch sp. Incaspiza sp.
  • Wedge-tailed/Lesser Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola/ypiranganus
  • Rufous-rumped/Chestnut Seedeater Sporophila hypochroma/cinnamomea
  • Gray/Slate-colored Seedeater Sporophila intermedia/schistacea

COMMON NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (here) for the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a change from species to slash). Other name changes may be driven by changes in taxonomic sequence (as with hybrids and slashes, where the first-listed species always comes first), an attempt to follow an emerging consensus in local usage, or a taxonomic revision that affects hyphenation rules. Two common changes this year were a result of increased global standardization in common names: 1) use of Malayan (for species restricted to peninsular Malaysia vs. Malaysian for species that occur on the peninsula and on Borneo; 2) similarly, we use Madagascar for species endemic to Madagascar and Malagasy for birds endemic to the region, including Mayotte and Comoros. Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here.

  • Hottentot Teal –> Blue-billed Teal
  • Variable Chachalaca (Chestnut-headed) –> Chestnut-headed Chachalaca
  • Dusky-legged Guan (Bridges’s) –> Yungas Guan
  • Malaysian Partridge –> Malayan Partridge
  • Crestless Fireback (Malay) –> Crestless Fireback (Malayan)
  • Crested Fireback (Malay) –> Crested Fireback (Malayan)
  • Crested Argus –> Vietnamese Crested Argus
  • Arborophila sp. –> Arborophila/Tropicoperdix sp.
  • Orange River Francolin (Kalahari) –> Orange River Francolin (Kunene)
  • Rock x Red-legged Partridge (hybrid) –> Red-legged x Rock Partridge (hybrid)
  • Island Collared-Dove –> Sunda Collared-Dove
  • Madagascar Turtle-Dove –> Malagasy Turtle-Dove
  • ground dove/Inca Dove sp. –> ground dove/Inca Dove
  • Madagascar Coucal –> Malagasy Coucal
  • Thick-billed Cuckoo (Malagasy) –> Thick-billed Cuckoo (Madagascar)
  • Malagasy Spinetail –> Madagascar Spinetail
  • Vaux’s Swift (Ashy-tailed) –> Ashy-tailed Swift
  • Madagascar Swift –> Malagasy Swift
  • African Palm-Swift (Comoro) –> Malagasy Palm-Swift (Comoro)
  • African Palm-Swift (Madagascar) –> Malagasy Palm-Swift (Madagascar)
  • Choco Daggerbill –> White-throated Daggerbill
  • Choco/Geoffroy’s Daggerbill –> White-throated/Geoffroy’s Daggerbill
  • Lesser/Sparkling Violetear –> Sparkling/Lesser Violetear
  • Festive Coquette (Butterfly) –> Butterfly Coquette
  • Festive Coquette (Festive) –> Festive Coquette
  • Rufous x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid) –> Calliope x Rufous Hummingbird (hybrid)
  • Broad-tailed x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid) –> Calliope x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid)
  • Broad-billed Hummingbird (Doubleday’s) –> Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird
  • Chlorostilbon sp. –> Riccordia/Cynanthus/Chlorostilbon sp.
  • Dry-forest Sabrewing –> Outcrop Sabrewing
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (diamantinensis) –> Diamantina Sabrewing
  • Fork-tailed/Violet-capped Woodnymph –> Violet-capped/Fork-tailed Woodnymph
  • Rufous-tailed x Cinnamon Hummingbird (hybrid) –> Cinnamon x Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid)
  • Honduran Emerald x Azure-crowned Hummingbird (hybrid) –> Azure-crowned Hummingbird x Honduran Emerald (hybrid)
  • Lepidopyga sp. –> Shining-green/Sapphire-throated/Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird
  • Lesser Sand-Plover (Mongolian) –> Lesser Sand-Plover (Siberian)
  • Kentish Plover (White-faced) –> White-faced Plover
  • Cox’s Sandpiper (hybrid) –> Curlew x Pectoral Sandpiper (hybrid)
  • South American Snipe (South American) –> Paraguayan Snipe
  • Wilson’s/South American Snipe –> Wilson’s/Paraguayan Snipe
  • South American Snipe (Magellanic) –> Magellanic Snipe
  • South American Snipe –> Paraguayan/Magellanic Snipe
  • Hottentot Buttonquail –> Fynbos Buttonquail
  • Mew Gull –> Common Gull
  • Mew Gull (European) –> Common Gull (European)
  • Mew Gull (Russian) –> Common Gull (Russian)
  • Mew Gull (Kamchatka) –> Common Gull (Kamchatka)
  • Mediterranean x Mew Gull (hybrid) –> Mediterranean x Common Gull (hybrid)
  • Mew Gull (American) –> Short-billed Gull
  • Royal Tern (African) –> West African Crested Tern
  • Oceanodroma sp. (Band-rumped complex) –> Hydrobates sp. (Band-rumped complex)
  • Oceanodroma sp. –> Hydrobates sp.
  • Neotropic x Double-crested Cormorant (hybrid) –> Double-crested x Neotropic Cormorant (hybrid)
  • Neotropic/Double-crested Cormorant –> Double-crested/Neotropic Cormorant
  • Little Bittern (Malagasy) –> Little Bittern (Madagascar)
  • Great Blue Heron (Blue form) –> Great Blue Heron (Great Blue)
  • Great Blue Heron (White form) –> Great Blue Heron (Great White)
  • Gray Heron (Malagasy) –> Gray Heron (Madagascar)
  • Madagascar Pond-Heron –> Malagasy Pond-Heron
  • Rufous Night-Heron –> Nankeen Night-Heron
  • Black-crowned/Rufous Night-Heron –> Black-crowned/Nankeen Night-Heron
  • Madagascar Sacred Ibis –> Malagasy Sacred Ibis
  • African/Madagascar Sacred Ibis –> African/Malagasy Sacred Ibis
  • Madagascar Harrier –> Malagasy Harrier
  • Eurasian Scops-Owl (Cyprus) –> Cyprus Scops-Owl
  • Malagasy Scops-Owl –> Madagascar Scops-Owl
  • Puerto Rican Screech-Owl –> Puerto Rican Owl
  • Spotted Eagle-Owl –> Arabian Eagle-Owl
  • Spotted Eagle-Owl (Spotted) –> Spotted Eagle-Owl
  • Collared Owlet (Sunda) –> Sunda Owlet
  • San Isidro Owl (undescribed form) –> Black-banded Owl (San Isidro)
  • Tawny Owl (Atlas) –> Maghreb Owl
  • Barred Owl (Cinereous) –> Cinereous Owl
  • Southern Boobook (Rote) –> Rote Boobook
  • Southern Boobook (Timor) –> Timor Boobook
  • Southern Boobook (Alor) –> Alor Boobook
  • Hantu Boobook (Seram) –> Seram Boobook
  • Hantu Boobook (Buru) –> Buru Boobook
  • Southern Red-billed x Damara Red-billed Hornbill (hybrid) –> Southern x Damara Red-billed Hornbill (hybrid)
  • Blue-banded Kingfisher (Malay) –> Blue-banded Kingfisher (Malaysian)
  • Madagascar Pygmy-Kingfisher –> Madagascar Pygmy Kingfisher
  • African Pygmy-Kingfisher –> African Pygmy Kingfisher
  • Golden-throated Barbet (Malaysian) –> Golden-throated Barbet (Malayan)
  • Sulawesi Woodpecker –> Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Philippine Woodpecker –> Philippine Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Sulu Woodpecker –> Sulu Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Brown-capped Woodpecker –> Brown-capped Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Sunda Woodpecker –> Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Gray-capped Woodpecker –> Gray-capped Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Brown-capped/Gray-capped Woodpecker –> Brown-capped/Gray-capped PygmyWoodpecker
  • Pygmy Woodpecker –> Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker
  • Crested/Southern Caracara –> Crested Caracara
  • Crested Caracara –> Crested Caracara (Northern)
  • Southern Caracara –> Crested Caracara (Southern)
  • Madagascar Kestrel –> Malagasy Kestrel
  • Australian Kestrel –> Nankeen Kestrel
  • Peregrine Falcon (Malagasy) –> Peregrine Falcon (Madagascar)
  • Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Mustard-capped) –> Yellow-cheeked Lorikeet
  • Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Yellow-and-green) –> Sula Lorikeet
  • Rainbow x Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (hybrid) –> Scaly-breasted x Rainbow Lorikeet (hybrid)
  • Rainbow/Scaly-breasted Lorikeet –> Scaly-breasted/Rainbow Lorikeet
  • Red-collared x Rainbow Lorikeet (hybrid) –> Rainbow x Red-collared Lorikeet (hybrid)
  • Red-collared/Rainbow Lorikeet –> Rainbow/Red-collared Lorikeet
  • Mexican Parrotlet (Tres Marias) –> Mexican Parrotlet (Tres Marias Is.)
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (Turquoise-winged) –> Turquoise-winged Parrotlet
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris) –> Riparian Parrotlet
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (Blue-winged) –> Cobalt-rumped Parrotlet
  • Siao Pitta –> Siau Pitta
  • Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) –> Rusty-winged Antwren
  • Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern) –> Rufous-margined Antwren
  • Parana Antwren –> Marsh Antwren
  • Parana Antwren (Parana) –> Marsh Antwren (Parana)
  • Parana Antwren (Sao Paulo) –> Marsh Antwren (Sao Paulo)
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Pacific) –> Western Fire-eye (Pacific)
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Black-bellied) –> Western Fire-eye (Black-bellied)
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Black-headed) –> Western Fire-eye (Black-headed)
  • Rufous Antpitta (Sierra Nevada) –> Sierra Nevada Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (Perija) –> Perija Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (Rufous) –> Muisca Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (South Peruvian) –> Urubamba Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (Bolivian) –> Bolivian Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (Cajamarca) –> Cajamarca Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta (North Peruvian) –> Junin Antpitta
  • Rufous Antpitta –> antpitta sp. (Rufous/Chestnut Antpitta complex)
  • Ampay Tapaculo (undescribed form) –> Ampay Tapaculo
  • Millpo Tapaculo (undescribed form) –> Jalca Tapaculo
  • Blackish Tapaculo (Peruvian) –> Utcubamba Tapaculo
  • Black-faced Antthrush (Mayan) –> Mayan Antthrush
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser –> Middle American Leaftosser
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Mexican) –> Middle American Leaftosser (Mexican)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Costa Rican) –> Middle American Leaftosser (Costa Rican)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Andean) –> South American Leaftosser (Andean)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Dusky) –> South American Leaftosser (Dusky)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Amazonian) –> South American Leaftosser (Amazonian)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Guianan) –> South American Leaftosser (Guianan)
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Atlantic) –> South American Leaftosser (Atlantic)
  • Red-billed Woodcreeper (Uniform) –> Uniform Woodcreeper (Uniform)
  • Red-billed Woodcreeper (Brigida’s) –> Uniform Woodcreeper (Brigida’s)
  • Rondonia Woodcreeper –> Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Rondonia)
  • Layard’s Woodcreeper –> Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Layard’s)
  • Cinclodes sp. –> cinclodes sp.
  • Necklaced Spinetail (Chinchipe) –> Chinchipe Spinetail
  • Tityra sp. –> tityra sp.
  • Schiffornis sp. –> schiffornis sp.
  • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Sierra de Lema) –> Sierra de Lema Flycatcher
  • Slaty-capped Flycatcher (albidiventris) –> Slaty-capped Flycatcher (albidiventer)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Santa Marta) –> Yellow-olive Flycatcher (exortivus)
  • Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-fronted) –> Fulvous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant
  • Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-crowned) –> Rufous-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Galapagos) –> Brujo Flycatcher (Galapagos)
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (San Cristobal) –> Brujo Flycatcher (San Cristobal)
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Arizona) –> Dusky-capped Flycatcher (olivascens)
  • Pilbara Grasswren –> Rufous Grasswren (Pilbara)
  • Sandhill Grasswren –> Rufous Grasswren (Sandhill)
  • Rusty Grasswren –> Opalton Grasswren
  • Spot-breasted Meliphaga –> Mottled Honeyeater
  • Mountain Meliphaga –> Mountain Honeyeater
  • Graceful Honeyeater (imitatrix) –> Cryptic Honeyeater
  • Meliphaga sp. –> Meliphaga/Territornis/Microptilotis sp.
  • Alor Myzomela (undescribed form) –> Alor Myzomela
  • Taliabu Myzomela (undescribed form) –> Taliabu Myzomela
  • Large Cuckooshrike (Malay) –> Large Cuckooshrike (Malayan)
  • Little Shrikethrush (Variable) –> Variable Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Waigeo) –> Waigeo Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Mamberamo) –> Mamberamo Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Sepik-Ramu) –> Sepik-Ramu Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Arafura) –> Arafura Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Tagula) –> Tagula Shrikethrush
  • Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) –> Rufous Shrikethrush
  • Batis sp. –> batis sp.
  • Tchagra sp. –> tchagra sp.
  • Cerulean Paradise-Flycatcher –> Cerulean Flycatcher
  • Peleng Fantail (undescribed form) –> Peleng Fantail
  • Rufous Fantail (Moluccan) –> Rufous Fantail (Gilolo)
  • Crested Drongo (Malagasy) –> Crested Drongo (Madagascar)
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Madagascar) –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Malagasy)
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoros) –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoros)
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Grand Comoro) –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Grand Comoro)
  • Gray-capped Shrike –> Mountain Shrike
  • Chinese Gray Shrike (Chinese) –> Chinese Gray Shrike
  • Chinese Gray Shrike (Giant) –> Giant Shrike
  • Chinese Gray Shrike –> Chinese Gray/Giant Shrike
  • Black Magpie (Malay) –> Black Magpie (Malayan)
  • Canada Jay (Northern) –> Canada Jay (Boreal)
  • Mountain Chickadee (Sierra Nevada) –> Mountain Chickadee (Pacific)
  • Sykes’s Short-toed Lark –> Mongolian Short-toed Lark
  • Greater/Sykes’s Short-toed Lark –> Greater/Mongolian Short-toed Lark
  • Dunn’s Lark (African) –> Dunn’s Lark
  • Dunn’s Lark (Arabian) –> Arabian Lark
  • Dunn’s Lark –> Dunn’s/Arabian Lark
  • Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark –> Asian/Turkestan Short-toed Lark
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark –> Mediterranean/Turkestan Short-toed Lark
  • Greater/Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark –> Greater Short-toed Lark/Alaudala sp.
  • Eremomela sp. –> eremomela sp.
  • Camaroptera sp. –> camaroptera sp.
  • Apalis sp. –> apalis sp.
  • Striated Prinia –> Himalayan Prinia
  • Kilombero Cisticola (undescribed form) –> Kilombero Cisticola
  • White-tailed Cisticola (undescribed form) –> White-tailed Cisticola
  • Zitting Cisticola (Zitting) –> Zitting Cisticola (Western)
  • Zitting Cisticola (tinnabulans Group) –> Zitting Cisticola (Double Zitting)
  • Zitting Cisticola (Eastern) –> Zitting Cisticola (Far Eastern)
  • Madagascar Brush-Warbler –> Malagasy Brush-Warbler
  • Gray’s Grasshopper-Warbler –> Gray’s Grasshopper Warbler
  • Sakhalin Grasshopper-Warbler –> Sakhalin Grasshopper Warbler
  • Gray’s/Sakhalin Grasshopper-Warbler –> Gray’s/Sakhalin Grasshopper Warbler
  • Pallas’s Grasshopper-Warbler –> Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler
  • Middendorff’s Grasshopper-Warbler –> Middendorff’s Grasshopper Warbler
  • Pleske’s Grasshopper-Warbler –> Pleske’s Grasshopper Warbler
  • Middendorff’s/Pleske’s Grasshopper-Warbler –> Middendorff’s/Pleske’s Grasshopper Warbler
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Sulawesi) –> Sulawesi Bush Warbler
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Seram) –> Seram Bush Warbler
  • Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler (undescribed form) –> Taliabu Bush Warbler
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Buru) –> Buru Bush Warbler
  • Locustella sp. –> Helopsaltes/Locustella sp.
  • Little Rush-Warbler –> Little Rush Warbler
  • martin sp. (Progne sp.) –> new world martin sp. (Progne sp.)
  • Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Gray-cheeked) –> Gray-cheeked Bulbul
  • Ochraceous Bulbul (Chestnut-vented) –> Penan Bulbul
  • Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Brown-cheeked) –> Brown-cheeked Bulbul
  • Ochraceous Bulbul (Ochraceous) –> Ochraceous Bulbul
  • Madagascar Bulbul –> Malagasy Bulbul
  • Banggai Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) –> Island Leaf Warbler (Peleng)
  • Taliabu Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) –> Island Leaf Warbler (Taliabu)
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Numfor) –> Numfor Leaf Warbler
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Biak) –> Biak Leaf Warbler
  • Tesia sp. (genus Tesia) –> tesia sp. (genus Tesia)
  • Subalpine Warbler (inornata) –> Western Subalpine Warbler
  • Subalpine Warbler –> Western/Eastern Subalpine Warbler
  • Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler –> Moltoni’s/Western/Eastern Subalpine Warbler
  • Sylvia sp. –> Sylvia/Curruca sp.
  • Ludlow’s Fulvetta –> Brown-throated Fulvetta
  • Fulvetta sp. –> fulvetta sp.
  • Indian/Swinhoe’s White-eye –> Swinhoe’s/Indian White-eye
  • Abyssinian White-eye (Socotra) –> Socotra White-eye
  • African Yellow White-eye (Forest) –> Forest White-eye
  • African Yellow White-eye (Green) –> Green White-eye
  • African Yellow White-eye (African Yellow) –> Northern Yellow White-eye
  • African Yellow White-eye (Southern) –> Southern Yellow White-eye
  • Madagascar White-eye –> Malagasy White-eye
  • Lemon-bellied White-eye (Wakatobi) –> Wakatobi White-eye
  • Hume’s/Swinhoe’s White-eye –> Swinhoe’s/Hume’s White-eye
  • Layard’s White-eye/Silvereye –> Silvereye/Layard’s White-eye
  • Solomons White-eye (Solomons) –> Solomons White-eye
  • Solomons White-eye (Rendova) –> Dark-eyed White-eye
  • Pin-striped/Gray-faced Tit-Babbler –> Gray-faced/Pin-striped Tit-Babbler
  • Rusty-throated Wren-Babbler –> Mishmi Wren-Babbler
  • Long-tailed Wren-Babbler –> Naga Wren-Babbler
  • Red-billed/Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler –> Coral-billed/Red-billed Scimitar-Babbler
  • Blackish-breasted Babbler –> Sikkim Wedge-billed Babbler
  • Chevron-breasted Babbler –> Cachar Wedge-billed Babbler
  • Illadopsis sp. –> illadopsis sp.
  • Limestone Wren-Babbler (Rufous) –> Rufous Limestone Babbler
  • Limestone Wren-Babbler –> limestone babbler sp.
  • Mountain/Black-browed Fulvetta –> Black-browed/Mountain Fulvetta
  • Turdoides sp. –> Argya/Turdoides sp.
  • Ianthocincla sp. –> Ianthocincla/Pterorhinus sp.
  • Brown-headed Nuthatch (Grand Bahama) –> Bahama Nuthatch
  • Western Rock/Eastern Rock Nuthatch –> Western/Eastern Rock Nuthatch
  • Long-billed Gnatwren (Long-billed) –> Long-billed Gnatwren (Trilling)
  • Klage’s Gnatcatcher –> Klages’s Gnatcatcher
  • Inambari/Klage’s Gnatcatcher –> Inambari/Klages’s Gnatcatcher
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (White-browed) –> White-browed Gnatcatcher
  • Sedge Wren (Sedge) –> Sedge Wren
  • Sedge Wren –> Grass Wren
  • Sedge Wren (Grass) –> Grass Wren (Northern)
  • Sedge Wren (Venezuelan) –> Grass Wren (Venezuelan)
  • Sedge Wren (Paramo) –> Grass Wren (Paramo)
  • Sedge Wren (Junin) –> Grass Wren (Junin)
  • Sedge Wren (Puna) –> Grass Wren (Puna)
  • Sedge Wren (Tucuman) –> Grass Wren (Tucuman)
  • Sedge Wren (Pampas) –> Grass Wren (Pampas)
  • Sedge Wren (Austral) –> Grass Wren (Austral)
  • Spotted Nightingale-Thrush –> Yellow-throated Nightingale-Thrush
  • Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (Sclater’s) –> Speckled Nightingale-Thrush
  • Eastern Slaty Thrush –> Blacksmith Thrush
  • Hill Blue Flycatcher (Javan) –> Javan Blue Flycatcher
  • Hill Blue Flycatcher (Dayak) –> Dayak Blue Flycatcher
  • Vivid Niltava (Large) –> Vivid Niltava (Chinese)
  • Vivid Niltava (Small) –> Vivid Niltava (Taiwan)
  • Narcissus Flycatcher (Narcissus) –> Narcissus Flycatcher
  • Narcissus Flycatcher (Green-crowned) –> Ryuku Flycatcher
  • Yellow-rumped/Green-backed/Narcissus Flycatcher –> Yellow-rumped/Green-backed/Narcissus/Ryuku Flycatcher
  • Narcissus Flycatcher –> Narcissus/Ryuku Flycatcher
  • Short-toed Rock-Thrush (Short-toed) –> Short-toed Rock-Thrush (White-crowned)
  • Short-toed Rock-Thrush (White-crowned) –> Short-toed Rock-Thrush (Short-toed)
  • Siberian Stonechat (Stejneger’s) –> Amur Stonechat
  • Black-eared Wheatear (Western) –> Western Black-eared Wheatear
  • Black-eared Wheatear (Eastern) –> Eastern Black-eared Wheatear
  • Northern/Black-eared Wheatear –> Northern/Western Black-eared/Eastern Black-eared Wheatear
  • Black-eared Wheatear –> Western/Eastern Black-eared Wheatear
  • Pied/Cyprus Wheatear –> Cyprus/Pied Wheatear
  • Pied x Black-eared Wheatear (hybrid) –> Eastern Black-eared x Pied Wheatear (hybrid)
  • Pied/Black-eared Wheatear –> Eastern Black-eared/Pied Wheatear
  • Spectacled Flowerpecker (undescribed form) –> Spectacled Flowerpecker
  • Madagascar Sunbird –> Malagasy Sunbird
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Grand Comoro) –> Malagasy Sunbird (Grand Comoro)
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Moheli) –> Malagasy Sunbird (Moheli)
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Long-billed) –> Malagasy Sunbird (Long-billed)
  • Zebra x Double-barred Finch (hybrid) –> Double-barred x Zebra Finch (hybrid)
  • Streak-headed Munia (Streak-headed) –> Streak-headed Munia
  • Streak-headed Munia (White-spotted) –> White-spotted Munia
  • Streak-headed Munia –> Streak-headed/White-spotted Munia
  • Blue-faced/Papuan Parrotfinch –> Papuan/Blue-faced Parrotfinch
  • Long-billed Pipit (Nicholson’s) –> Nicholson’s Pipit
  • Scrub Euphonia (Godman’s) –> West Mexican Euphonia
  • Pine Grosbeak (Queen Charlotte) –> Pine Grosbeak (Haida Gwaii)
  • Brown Bullfinch (Malay) –> Brown Bullfinch (Malayan)
  • Plain Mountain-Finch –> Plain Mountain Finch
  • Black-headed Mountain-Finch –> Black-headed Mountain Finch
  • Red Crossbill (Da Lat) –> Red Crossbill (Dalat)
  • Spinus sp. (goldfinch sp.) –> new world goldfinch sp.
  • McCown’s Longspur –> Thick-billed Longspur
  • Chlorospingus sp. –> chlorospingus sp.
  • Stripe-capped Sparrow –> Yungas/Chaco Sparrow
  • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Stripe-crowned) –> Moss-backed Sparrow
  • Song Sparrow (samuelis) –> Song Sparrow (samuelsis)
  • Eastern Meadowlark (Lilian’s) –> Eastern Meadowlark (Chihuahuan)
  • Sutton’s Warbler (hybrid) –> Northern Parula x Yellow-throated Warbler (hybrid)
  • Rufous-capped Warbler (Chestnut-capped) –> Chestnut-capped Warbler
  • Red-breasted Chat (Tres Marias) –> Red-breasted Chat (Tres Marias Is.)
  • Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch –> Plain-tailed Warbling Finch
  • Rusty-browed Warbling-Finch –> Rusty-browed Warbling Finch
  • Buff-throated Warbling-Finch –> Buff-throated Warbling Finch
  • Gray-throated Warbling-Finch –> Gray-throated Warbling Finch
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch –> Ringed Warbling Finch
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch (Ringed) –> Ringed Warbling Finch (Ringed)
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch (Black-breasted) –> Ringed Warbling Finch (Black-breasted)
  • Black-capped Warbling-Finch –> Black-capped Warbling Finch
  • Cinereous Warbling-Finch –> Cinereous Warbling Finch
  • Yellow-green Chlorospingus –> Yellow-green Tanager
  • Hooded Mountain-Tanager –> Hooded Mountain Tanager
  • Masked Mountain-Tanager –> Masked Mountain Tanager
  • Black-chested Mountain-Tanager –> Black-chested Mountain Tanager
  • Golden-backed Mountain-Tanager –> Golden-backed Mountain Tanager
  • Black-cheeked Mountain-Tanager –> Black-cheeked Mountain Tanager
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (Perija) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (Perija)
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (melanops) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (melanops)
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (yariguierum) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (yariguierum)
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (intensus) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (intensus)
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (palpebrosus Group) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (palpebrosus Group)
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (lacrymosus) –> Lacrimose Mountain Tanager (lacrymosus)
  • Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager –> Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager
  • Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Scarlet-bellied) –> Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager (Scarlet-bellied)
  • Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Fire-bellied) –> Scarlet-bellied Mountain Tanager (Fire-bellied)
  • Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager –> Blue-winged Mountain Tanager
  • Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Blue-winged) –> Blue-winged Mountain Tanager (Blue-winged)
  • Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Bolivian) –> Blue-winged Mountain Tanager (Bolivian)
  • Black-chinned Mountain-Tanager –> Black-chinned Mountain Tanager
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager –> Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Carriker’s) –> Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager (Carriker’s)
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Buff-breasted) –> Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager (Buff-breasted)
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Cerulean-streaked) –> Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager (Cerulean-streaked)
  • Chestnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager –> Chestnut-bellied Mountain Tanager
  • Rufous-bellied Mountain-Tanager –> Rufous-bellied Mountain Tanager
  • Dacnis sp. –> dacnis sp.
  • Black-hooded Sierra-Finch –> Black-hooded Sierra Finch
  • Peruvian Sierra-Finch –> Peruvian Sierra Finch
  • Gray-hooded Sierra-Finch –> Gray-hooded Sierra Finch
  • Gray-hooded Sierra-Finch (minor) –> Gray-hooded Sierra Finch (minor)
  • Gray-hooded Sierra-Finch (gayi/caniceps) –> Gray-hooded Sierra Finch (gayi/caniceps)
  • Patagonian Sierra-Finch –> Patagonian Sierra Finch
  • Common Diuca-Finch –> Diuca Finch
  • Red-backed Sierra-Finch –> Red-backed Sierra Finch
  • White-throated Sierra-Finch –> White-throated Sierra Finch
  • White-winged Diuca-Finch –> Glacier Finch
  • Short-tailed Finch –> Boulder Finch
  • Plumbeous Sierra-Finch –> Plumbeous Sierra Finch
  • Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch –> Ash-breasted Sierra Finch
  • Mourning Sierra-Finch –> Mourning Sierra Finch
  • Mourning Sierra-Finch (Mourning) –> Mourning Sierra Finch (Mourning)
  • Mourning Sierra-Finch (Blackish) –> Mourning Sierra Finch (Blackish)
  • Band-tailed Sierra-Finch –> Band-tailed Sierra Finch
  • Carbonated Sierra-Finch –> Carbonated Sierra Finch
  • sierra-finch sp. –> sierra finch sp.
  • Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch –> Chestnut-breasted Mountain Finch
  • Rufous-sided Warbling-Finch –> Rufous-sided Warbling Finch
  • Bay-chested Warbling-Finch –> Bay-chested Warbling Finch
  • Bolivian Warbling-Finch –> Bolivian Warbling Finch
  • Cinnamon Warbling-Finch –> Cinnamon Warbling Finch
  • Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch –> Black-and-chestnut Warbling Finch
  • Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch –> Black-and-rufous Warbling Finch
  • Black-and-chestnut/Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch –> Black-and-chestnut/Black-and-rufous Warbling Finch
  • Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch –> Rufous-breasted Warbling Finch
  • Collared Warbling-Finch –> Collared Warbling Finch
  • Cochabamba Mountain-Finch –> Cochabamba Mountain Finch
  • Tucuman Mountain-Finch –> Tucuman Mountain Finch
  • warbling-finch sp. –> warbling finch sp.
  • Common Diuca-Finch x Yellow Cardinal (hybrid) –> Diuca Finch x Yellow Cardinal (hybrid)
  • Grayish Saltator (Caribbean) –> Olivaceous Saltator
  • Grayish Saltator (Middle American) –> Cinnamon-bellied Saltator
  • Grayish Saltator (Amazonian) –> Blue-gray Saltator
  • Grayish Saltator –> Olivaceous/Blue-gray Saltator

SCIENTIFIC NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). We display the primary (v2021) English name as well (thus, the English name would match the revised Scientific Name in instances of a split).

  • Chestnut-headed Chachalaca: Ortalis motmot ruficeps –> Ortalis ruficeps
  • Yungas Guan: Penelope obscura bridgesi –> Penelope bridgesi
  • Udzungwa Partridge (Rubeho): Xenoperdix udzungwensis obscurata –> Xenoperdix udzungwensis obscuratus
  • Spruce Grouse: Falcipennis canadensis –> Canachites canadensis
  • Spruce Grouse (Spruce): Falcipennis canadensis [canadensis Group] –> Canachites canadensis [canadensis Group]
  • Spruce Grouse (Franklin’s): Falcipennis canadensis franklinii –> Canachites canadensis franklinii/isleibi
  • Ruffed/Spruce Grouse: Bonasa umbellus/Falcipennis canadensis –> Bonasa umbellus/Canachites canadensis
  • Black Grouse: Tetrao tetrix –> Lyrurus tetrix
  • Western Capercaillie x Black Grouse (hybrid): Tetrao urogallus x tetrix –> Tetrao urogallus x Lyrurus tetrix
  • Caucasian Grouse: Tetrao mlokosiewiczi –> Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi
  • Scaly-breasted Partridge: Arborophila chloropus –> Tropicoperdix chloropus
  • Scaly-breasted Partridge (Tonkin): Arborophila chloropus tonkinensis –> Tropicoperdix chloropus tonkinensis
  • Scaly-breasted Partridge (Green-legged): Arborophila chloropus [chloropus Group] –> Tropicoperdix chloropus [chloropus Group]
  • Chestnut-necklaced Partridge: Arborophila charltonii –> Tropicoperdix charltonii
  • Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Chestnut-necklaced): Arborophila charltonii charltonii/atjenensis –> Tropicoperdix charltonii charltonii/atjenensis
  • Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Sabah): Arborophila charltonii graydoni –> Tropicoperdix charltonii graydoni
  • Arborophila/Tropicoperdix sp.: Arborophila sp. –> Arborophila/Tropicoperdix sp.
  • pheasant sp.: Phasianinae sp. –> Phasianidae sp. (pheasant sp.)
  • Crested Francolin: Dendroperdix sephaena –> Ortygornis sephaena
  • Crested Francolin (Kirk’s): Dendroperdix sephaena rovuma –> Ortygornis sephaena rovuma
  • Crested Francolin (Crested): Dendroperdix sephaena [sephaena Group] –> Ortygornis sephaena [sephaena Group]
  • Gray Francolin: Francolinus pondicerianus –> Ortygornis pondicerianus
  • Swamp Francolin: Francolinus gularis –> Ortygornis gularis
  • Coqui Francolin: Peliperdix coqui –> Campocolinus coqui
  • Coqui Francolin (Plain-breasted): Peliperdix coqui [hubbardi Group] –> Campocolinus coqui [hubbardi Group]
  • Coqui Francolin (Bar-breasted): Peliperdix coqui coqui –> Campocolinus coqui coqui
  • White-throated Francolin: Peliperdix albogularis –> Campocolinus albogularis
  • White-throated Francolin (White-throated): Peliperdix albogularis albogularis/buckleyi –> Campocolinus albogularis albogularis/buckleyi
  • White-throated Francolin (Chestnut-breasted): Peliperdix albogularis dewittei –> Campocolinus albogularis dewittei
  • Schlegel’s Francolin: Peliperdix schlegelii –> Campocolinus schlegelii
  • Snow Mountain Quail: Anurophasis monorthonyx –> Synoicus monorthonyx
  • Red-legged x Rock Partridge (hybrid): Alectoris graeca x rufa –> Alectoris rufa x graeca
  • Rock/Red-legged Partridge: Alectoris graeca/rufa –> Alectoris rufa/graeca
  • francolin sp.: Pternistis/Francolinus/Peliperdix/Scleroptila sp. –> Phasianidae sp. (francolin sp.)
  • Crested Coua (Crested): Coua cristata [cristata Group] –> Coua cristata cristata/dumonti
  • Ashy-tailed Swift: Chaetura vauxi andrei –> Chaetura andrei
  • Malagasy Palm-Swift (Comoro): Cypsiurus parvus griveaudi –> Cypsiurus gracilis griveaudi
  • Malagasy Palm-Swift (Madagascar): Cypsiurus parvus gracilis –> Cypsiurus gracilis gracilis
  • Sparkling/Lesser Violetear: Colibri cyanotus/coruscans –> Colibri coruscans/cyanotus
  • Butterfly Coquette: Lophornis chalybeus verreauxii/klagesi –> Lophornis verreauxii
  • Festive Coquette: Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus –> Lophornis chalybeus
  • Calliope x Rufous Hummingbird (hybrid): Selasphorus rufus x calliope –> Selasphorus calliope x rufus
  • Calliope x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid): Selasphorus platycercus x calliope –> Selasphorus calliope x platycercus
  • Bumblebee Hummingbird: Atthis heloisa –> Selasphorus heloisa
  • Wine-throated Hummingbird: Atthis ellioti –> Selasphorus ellioti
  • Dusky Hummingbird: Cynanthus sordidus –> Phaeoptila sordida
  • Cuban Emerald: Chlorostilbon ricordii –> Riccordia ricordii
  • Brace’s Emerald: Chlorostilbon bracei –> Riccordia bracei
  • Brace’s Emerald (Brace’s): Chlorostilbon bracei bracei –> Riccordia bracei bracei
  • Brace’s Emerald (Caribbean): Chlorostilbon bracei elegans –> Riccordia bracei elegans
  • Hispaniolan Emerald: Chlorostilbon swainsonii –> Riccordia swainsonii
  • Puerto Rican Emerald: Chlorostilbon maugaeus –> Riccordia maugaeus
  • Blue-headed Hummingbird: Cyanophaia bicolor –> Riccordia bicolor
  • Turquoise-crowned Hummingbird: Cynanthus latirostris doubledayi –> Cynanthus doubledayi
  • Golden-crowned Emerald: Chlorostilbon auriceps –> Cynanthus auriceps
  • Cozumel Emerald: Chlorostilbon forficatus –> Cynanthus forficatus
  • Canivet’s Emerald: Chlorostilbon canivetii –> Cynanthus canivetii
  • Canivet’s Emerald (Canivet’s): Chlorostilbon canivetii canivetii –> Cynanthus canivetii canivetii
  • Canivet’s Emerald (Salvin’s): Chlorostilbon canivetii salvini/osberti –> Cynanthus canivetii salvini/osberti
  • Riccordia/Cynanthus/Chlorostilbon sp.: Chlorostilbon sp. –> Riccordia/Cynanthus/Chlorostilbon sp.
  • White-eared Hummingbird: Hylocharis leucotis –> Basilinna leucotis
  • Xantus’s Hummingbird: Hylocharis xantusii –> Basilinna xantusii
  • Wedge-tailed Sabrewing: Campylopterus curvipennis –> Pampa curvipennis
  • Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (Curve-winged): Campylopterus curvipennis curvipennis –> Pampa curvipennis curvipennis
  • Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (Wedge-tailed): Campylopterus curvipennis pampa –> Pampa curvipennis pampa
  • Long-tailed Sabrewing: Campylopterus excellens –> Pampa excellens
  • Rufous Sabrewing: Campylopterus rufus –> Pampa rufa
  • Diamantina Sabrewing: Campylopterus largipennis diamantinensis –> Campylopterus diamantinensis
  • Violet-capped/Fork-tailed Woodnymph: Thalurania furcata/glaucopis –> Thalurania glaucopis/furcata
  • Coppery-headed Emerald: Elvira cupreiceps –> Microchera cupreiceps
  • White-tailed Emerald: Elvira chionura –> Microchera chionura
  • Pirre Hummingbird: Goethalsia bella –> Goldmania bella
  • Mexican Woodnymph: Thalurania ridgwayi –> Eupherusa ridgwayi
  • Tumbes Hummingbird: Leucippus baeri –> Thaumasius baeri
  • Spot-throated Hummingbird: Leucippus taczanowskii –> Thaumasius taczanowskii
  • Sombre Hummingbird: Aphantochroa cirrochloris –> Eupetomena cirrochloris
  • Olive-spotted Hummingbird: Leucippus chlorocercus –> Talaphorus chlorocercus
  • Violet-crowned Hummingbird: Amazilia violiceps –> Leucolia violiceps
  • Broad-billed x Violet-crowned Hummingbird (hybrid): Cynanthus latirostris x Amazilia violiceps –> Cynanthus latirostris x Leucolia violiceps
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird: Amazilia viridifrons –> Leucolia viridifrons
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird (Green-fronted): Amazilia viridifrons viridifrons –> Leucolia viridifrons viridifrons
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird (Cinnamon-sided): Amazilia viridifrons wagneri –> Leucolia viridifrons wagneri
  • Azure-crowned Hummingbird: Amazilia cyanocephala –> Saucerottia cyanocephala
  • Azure-crowned Hummingbird (Azure-crowned): Amazilia cyanocephala cyanocephala –> Saucerottia cyanocephala cyanocephala
  • Azure-crowned Hummingbird (Mosquitia): Amazilia cyanocephala chlorostephana –> Saucerottia cyanocephala chlorostephana
  • Blue-vented Hummingbird: Amazilia hoffmanni –> Saucerottia hoffmanni
  • Berylline Hummingbird: Amazilia beryllina –> Saucerottia beryllina
  • Berylline Hummingbird (Northern): Amazilia beryllina beryllina/viola –> Saucerottia beryllina beryllina/viola
  • Berylline Hummingbird (Sumichrast’s): Amazilia beryllina [devillei Group] –> Saucerottia beryllina [devillei Group]
  • Rivoli’s x Berylline Hummingbird (hybrid): Eugenes fulgens x Amazilia beryllina –> Eugenes fulgens x Saucerottia beryllina
  • Blue-tailed Hummingbird: Amazilia cyanura –> Saucerottia cyanura
  • Snowy-bellied Hummingbird: Amazilia edward –> Saucerottia edward
  • Steely-vented Hummingbird: Amazilia saucerottei –> Saucerottia saucerottei
  • Guanacaste Hummingbird (unrecognized species): Amazilia alfaroana [unrecognized species] –> Saucerottia alfaroana [unrecognized species]
  • Indigo-capped Hummingbird: Amazilia cyanifrons –> Saucerottia cyanifrons
  • Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird: Amazilia castaneiventris –> Saucerottia castaneiventris
  • Green-bellied Hummingbird: Amazilia viridigaster –> Saucerottia viridigaster
  • Green-bellied Hummingbird (Green-bellied): Amazilia viridigaster [viridigaster Group] –> Saucerottia viridigaster viridigaster/iodura
  • Green-bellied Hummingbird (Copper-tailed): Amazilia viridigaster [cupreicauda Group] –> Saucerottia viridigaster [cupreicauda Group]
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird: Amazilia tobaci –> Saucerottia tobaci
  • Cinnamon x Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid): Amazilia tzacatl x rutila –> Amazilia rutila x tzacatl
  • Azure-crowned Hummingbird x Honduran Emerald (hybrid): Amazilia luciae x cyanocephala –> Saucerottia cyanocephala x Amazilia luciae
  • Amazilia Hummingbird: Amazilia amazilia –> Amazilis amazilia
  • Amazilia Hummingbird (White-throated): Amazilia amazilia [dumerilii Group] –> Amazilis amazilia [dumerilii Group]
  • Amazilia Hummingbird (Green-throated): Amazilia amazilia amazilia –> Amazilis amazilia amazilia
  • Amazilia Hummingbird (Blue-throated): Amazilia amazilia caeruleigularis –> Amazilis amazilia caeruleigularis
  • Andean Emerald: Amazilia franciae –> Uranomitra franciae
  • Versicolored Emerald: Amazilia versicolor –> Chrysuronia versicolor
  • Versicolored Emerald (Versicolored): Amazilia versicolor [versicolor Group] –> Chrysuronia versicolor [versicolor Group]
  • Versicolored Emerald (Rondonia): Amazilia versicolor rondoniae –> Chrysuronia versicolor rondoniae
  • Shining-green Hummingbird: Lepidopyga goudoti –> Chrysuronia goudoti
  • Sapphire-throated Hummingbird: Lepidopyga coeruleogularis –> Chrysuronia coeruleogularis
  • Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird: Lepidopyga lilliae –> Chrysuronia lilliae
  • Shining-green/Sapphire-throated/Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird: Lepidopyga sp. –> Chrysuronia goudoti/coeruleogularis/lilliae
  • Humboldt’s Sapphire: Hylocharis humboldtii –> Chrysuronia humboldtii
  • Blue-headed Sapphire: Hylocharis grayi –> Chrysuronia grayi
  • White-chested Emerald: Amazilia brevirostris –> Chrysuronia brevirostris
  • Plain-bellied Emerald: Amazilia leucogaster –> Chrysuronia leucogaster
  • Glittering-throated Emerald: Amazilia fimbriata –> Chionomesa fimbriata
  • Sapphire-spangled Emerald: Amazilia lactea –> Chionomesa lactea
  • Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Sapphire-spangled): Amazilia lactea lactea/zimmeri –> Chionomesa lactea lactea/zimmeri
  • Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Spot-vented): Amazilia lactea bartletti –> Chionomesa lactea bartletti
  • White-bellied Hummingbird: Amazilia chionogaster –> Elliotomyia chionogaster
  • Green-and-white Hummingbird: Amazilia viridicauda –> Elliotomyia viridicauda
  • Purple-chested Hummingbird: Amazilia rosenbergi –> Polyerata rosenbergi
  • Blue-chested Hummingbird: Amazilia amabilis –> Polyerata amabilis
  • Charming Hummingbird: Amazilia decora –> Polyerata decora
  • White-bellied Emerald: Amazilia candida –> Chlorestes candida
  • Blue-throated Goldentail: Hylocharis eliciae –> Chlorestes eliciae
  • White-chinned Sapphire: Hylocharis cyanus –> Chlorestes cyanus
  • Violet-bellied Hummingbird: Juliamyia julie –> Chlorestes julie
  • Madagascar Wood-Rail: Mentrocrex kioloides –> Mentocrex kioloides
  • Tsingy Wood-Rail: Mentrocrex beankaensis –> Mentocrex beankaensis
  • White-browed Crake: Amaurornis cinerea –> Poliolimnas cinereus
  • White-faced Plover: Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus –> Charadrius dealbatus
  • Whimbrel (Siberian): Numenius phaeopus variegatus –> Numenius phaeopus variegatus/rogachevae
  • Paraguayan Snipe: Gallinago paraguaiae paraguaiae –> Gallinago paraguaiae
  • Magellanic Snipe: Gallinago paraguaiae magellanica –> Gallinago magellanica
  • Paraguayan/Magellanic Snipe: Gallinago paraguaiae –> Gallinago paraguaiae/magellanica
  • Short-billed Gull: Larus canus brachyrhynchus –> Larus brachyrhynchus
  • West African Crested Tern: Thalasseus maximus albididorsalis –> Thalasseus albididorsalis
  • Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma furcata –> Hydrobates furcatus
  • Ringed Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma hornbyi –> Hydrobates hornbyi
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma leucorhoa –> Hydrobates leucorhous
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Leach’s): Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa –> Hydrobates leucorhous leucorhous
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Chapman’s): Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani –> Hydrobates leucorhous chapmani
  • Townsend’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma socorroensis –> Hydrobates socorroensis
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis –> Hydrobates leucorhous/socorroensis
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (dark-rumped): Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis (dark-rumped) –> Hydrobates leucorhous/socorroensis (dark-rumped)
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (white-rumped): Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis (white-rumped) –> Hydrobates leucorhous/socorroensis (white-rumped)
  • Ainley’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma cheimomnestes –> Hydrobates cheimomnestes
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s/Ainley’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis/cheimomnestes –> Hydrobates leucorhoa/socorroensis/cheimomnestes
  • Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma monorhis –> Hydrobates monorhis
  • Ashy Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma homochroa –> Hydrobates homochroa
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma castro –> Hydrobates castro
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Madeiran): Oceanodroma castro castro –> Hydrobates castro castro
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Grant’s): Oceanodroma castro [undescribed form] –> Hydrobates castro [undescribed form]
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Darwin’s): Oceanodroma castro bangsi –> Hydrobates castro bangsi
  • Monteiro’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma monteiroi –> Hydrobates monteiroi
  • Cape Verde Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma jabejabe –> Hydrobates jabejabe
  • Hydrobates sp. (Band-rumped complex): Oceanodroma sp. (Band-rumped complex) –> Hydrobates sp. (Band-rumped complex)
  • Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma tethys –> Hydrobates tethys
  • Black Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma melania –> Hydrobates melania
  • Guadalupe Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma macrodactyla –> Hydrobates macrodactyla
  • Markham’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma markhami –> Hydrobates markhami
  • Black/Markham’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma melania/markhami –> Hydrobates melania/markhami
  • Matsudaira’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma matsudairae –> Hydrobates matsudairae
  • Tristram’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma tristrami –> Hydrobates tristrami
  • Least Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma microsoma –> Hydrobates microsoma
  • Hydrobates sp.: Oceanodroma sp. –> Hydrobates sp.
  • Red-legged Cormorant: Phalacrocorax gaimardi –> Poikilocarbo gaimardi
  • Brandt’s Cormorant: Phalacrocorax penicillatus –> Urile penicillatus
  • Red-faced Cormorant: Phalacrocorax urile –> Urile urile
  • Pelagic Cormorant: Phalacrocorax pelagicus –> Urile pelagicus
  • Pallas’s Cormorant: Phalacrocorax perspicillatus –> Urile perspicillatus
  • European Shag: Phalacrocorax aristotelis –> Gulosus aristotelis
  • European Shag (Atlantic): Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis –> Gulosus aristotelis aristotelis
  • European Shag (Mediterranean): Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii –> Gulosus aristotelis desmarestii
  • European Shag (Moroccan): Phalacrocorax aristotelis riggenbachi –> Gulosus aristotelis riggenbachi
  • Great Cormorant/European Shag: Phalacrocorax carbo/aristotelis –> Phalacrocorax carbo/Gulosus aristotelis
  • Flightless Cormorant: Phalacrocorax harrisi –> Nannopterum harrisi
  • Double-crested Cormorant: Phalacrocorax auritus –> Nannopterum auritum
  • Great/Double-crested Cormorant: Phalacrocorax carbo/auritus –> Phalacrocorax carbo/Nannopterum auritum
  • Neotropic Cormorant: Phalacrocorax brasilianus –> Nannopterum brasilianum
  • Double-crested x Neotropic Cormorant (hybrid): Phalacrocorax brasilianus x auritus –> Nannopterum auritum x brasilianum
  • Double-crested/Neotropic Cormorant: Phalacrocorax brasilianus/auritus –> Nannopterum auritum/brasilianum
  • Magellanic Cormorant: Phalacrocorax magellanicus –> Leucocarbo magellanicus
  • Guanay Cormorant: Phalacrocorax bougainvillii –> Leucocarbo bougainvillii
  • Bounty Islands Shag: Phalacrocorax ranfurlyi –> Leucocarbo ranfurlyi
  • New Zealand King Shag: Phalacrocorax carunculatus –> Leucocarbo carunculatus
  • Stewart Island Shag: Phalacrocorax chalconotus –> Leucocarbo chalconotus
  • Stewart Island Shag (Otago): Phalacrocorax chalconotus chalconotus –> Leucocarbo chalconotus chalconotus
  • Stewart Island Shag (Foveaux): Phalacrocorax chalconotus stewarti –> Leucocarbo chalconotus stewarti
  • Chatham Islands Shag: Phalacrocorax onslowi –> Leucocarbo onslowi
  • Auckland Islands Shag: Phalacrocorax colensoi –> Leucocarbo colensoi
  • Campbell Islands Shag: Phalacrocorax campbelli –> Leucocarbo campbelli
  • South Georgia Shag: Phalacrocorax georgianus –> Leucocarbo georgianus
  • Imperial Cormorant: Phalacrocorax atriceps –> Leucocarbo atriceps
  • Imperial Cormorant (Blue-eyed): Phalacrocorax atriceps (Blue-eyed) –> Leucocarbo atriceps (Blue-eyed)
  • Imperial Cormorant (King): Phalacrocorax atriceps (King) –> Leucocarbo atriceps (King)
  • Antarctic Shag: Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis –> Leucocarbo bransfieldensis
  • Crozet Shag: Phalacrocorax melanogenis –> Leucocarbo melanogenis
  • Kerguelen Shag: Phalacrocorax verrucosus –> Leucocarbo verrucosus
  • Heard Island Shag: Phalacrocorax nivalis –> Leucocarbo nivalis
  • Macquarie Shag: Phalacrocorax purpurascens –> Leucocarbo purpurascens
  • Great Blue Heron (Wurdemann’s): Ardea herodias (Wurdemann’s) –> Ardea herodias wardi x occidentalis
  • Barn Owl (Eastern): Tyto alba [delicatula Group] –> Tyto alba [javanica Group]
  • Barn Owl (American): Tyto alba [furcata Group] –> Tyto alba [tuidara Group]
  • Cyprus Scops-Owl: Otus scops cyprius –> Otus cyprius
  • Puerto Rican Owl: Megascops nudipes –> Gymnasio nudipes
  • Arabian Eagle-Owl: Bubo africanus –> Bubo milesi
  • Spotted Eagle-Owl: Bubo africanus africanus/tanae –> Bubo africanus
  • Collared Owlet: Glaucidium brodiei –> Taenioptynx brodiei
  • Sunda Owlet: Glaucidium brodiei sylvaticum/borneense –> Taenioptynx sylvaticus
  • Black-banded Owl (San Isidro): Ciccaba [undescribed form] –> Ciccaba huhula [undescribed cloud-forest form]
  • Maghreb Owl: Strix aluco mauritanica –> Strix mauritanica
  • Cinereous Owl: Strix varia sartorii –> Strix sartorii
  • Jamaican Owl: Pseudoscops grammicus –> Asio grammicus
  • Fearful Owl: Nesasio solomonensis –> Asio solomonensis
  • Rote Boobook: Ninox boobook rotiensis –> Ninox rotiensis
  • Timor Boobook: Ninox boobook fusca –> Ninox fusca
  • Alor Boobook: Ninox boobook plesseni –> Ninox plesseni
  • Seram Boobook: Ninox squamipila squamipila –> Ninox squamipila
  • Buru Boobook: Ninox squamipila hantu –> Ninox hantu
  • Curl-crested Aracari: Pteroglossus beauharnaesii –> Pteroglossus beauharnaisii
  • flameback sp.: Dinopium sp. –> Chrysocolaptes/Dinopium sp.
  • Crested Caracara: Caracara cheriway/plancus –> Caracara plancus
  • Crested Caracara (Northern): Caracara cheriway –> Caracara plancus [cheriway Group]
  • Crested Caracara (Southern): Caracara plancus –> Caracara plancus plancus
  • Rodrigues Parrot: Necopsittacus rodricanus –> Necropsittacus rodricanus
  • Pygmy Lorikeet: Charmosyna wilhelminae –> Charminetta wilhelminae
  • Red-fronted Lorikeet: Charmosyna rubronotata –> Hypocharmosyna rubronotata
  • Red-flanked Lorikeet: Charmosyna placentis –> Hypocharmosyna placentis
  • Blue-fronted Lorikeet: Charmosyna toxopei –> Charmosynopsis toxopei
  • Fairy Lorikeet: Charmosyna pulchella –> Charmosynopsis pulchella
  • Striated Lorikeet: Charmosyna multistriata –> Synorhacma multistriata
  • Duchess Lorikeet: Charmosyna margarethae –> Charmosynoides margarethae
  • Meek’s Lorikeet: Charmosyna meeki –> Vini meeki
  • New Caledonian Lorikeet: Charmosyna diadema –> Vini diadema
  • Red-chinned Lorikeet: Charmosyna rubrigularis –> Vini rubrigularis
  • Palm Lorikeet: Charmosyna palmarum –> Vini palmarum
  • Red-throated Lorikeet: Charmosyna amabilis –> Vini amabilis
  • Collared Lory: Phigys solitarius –> Vini solitarius
  • Little Lorikeet: Glossopsitta pusilla –> Parvipsitta pusilla
  • Purple-crowned Lorikeet: Glossopsitta porphyrocephala –> Parvipsitta porphyrocephala
  • Cardinal Lory: Chalcopsitta cardinalis –> Pseudeos cardinalis
  • Goldie’s Lorikeet: Psitteuteles goldiei –> Glossoptila goldiei
  • Mindanao Lorikeet: Trichoglossus johnstoniae –> Saudareos johnstoniae
  • Iris Lorikeet: Psitteuteles iris –> Saudareos iris
  • Ornate Lorikeet: Trichoglossus ornatus –> Saudareos ornatus
  • Yellow-cheeked Lorikeet: Trichoglossus flavoviridis meyeri –> Saudareos meyeri
  • Sula Lorikeet: Trichoglossus flavoviridis flavoviridis –> Saudareos flavoviridis
  • Scaly-breasted x Rainbow Lorikeet (hybrid): Trichoglossus haematodus x chlorolepidotus –> Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus x moluccanus
  • Scaly-breasted/Rainbow Lorikeet: Trichoglossus haematodus/chlorolepidotus –> Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus/moluccanus
  • Rainbow x Red-collared Lorikeet (hybrid): Trichoglossus rubritorquis x moluccanus –> Trichoglossus moluccanus x rubritorquis
  • Rainbow/Red-collared Lorikeet: Trichoglossus rubritorquis/moluccanus –> Trichoglossus moluccanus/rubritorquis
  • Turquoise-winged Parrotlet: Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli –> Forpus spengeli
  • Riparian Parrotlet: Forpus xanthopterygius crassirostris –> Forpus crassirostris
  • Cobalt-rumped Parrotlet: Forpus xanthopterygius xanthopterygius –> Forpus xanthopterygius
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet (Blue-crowned): Thectocercus acuticaudatus [acuticaudatus Group] –> Thectocercus acuticaudatus [haemorrhous Group]
  • Visayan Broadbill: Eurylaimus samarensis –> Sarcophanops samarensis
  • Wattled Broadbill: Eurylaimus steerii –> Sarcophanops steerii
  • Rusty-winged Antwren: Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater/exiguus –> Herpsilochmus frater
  • Rufous-margined Antwren: Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus/scapularis –> Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus
  • White-fringed Antwren (Southern): Formicivora grisea [grisea Group] –> Formicivora grisea grisea/rufiventris
  • Marsh Antwren: Stymphalornis acutirostris –> Formicivora acutirostris
  • Marsh Antwren (Parana): Stymphalornis acutirostris acutirostris –> Formicivora acutirostris acutirostris
  • Marsh Antwren (Sao Paulo): Stymphalornis acutirostris paludicola –> Formicivora acutirostris paludicola
  • Western Fire-eye (Pacific): Pyriglena leuconota pacifica –> Pyriglena maura pacifica
  • Western Fire-eye (Black-bellied): Pyriglena leuconota castanoptera –> Pyriglena maura castanoptera
  • Western Fire-eye (Black-headed): Pyriglena leuconota picea –> Pyriglena maura picea
  • Sierra Nevada Antpitta: Grallaria rufula spatiator –> Grallaria spatiator
  • Perija Antpitta: Grallaria rufula saltuensis –> Grallaria saltuensis
  • Muisca Antpitta: Grallaria rufula rufula –> Grallaria rufula
  • Urubamba Antpitta: Grallaria rufula occabambae –> Grallaria occabambae
  • Bolivian Antpitta: Grallaria rufula cochabambae –> Grallaria cochabambae
  • Cajamarca Antpitta: Grallaria rufula cajamarcae –> Grallaria cajamarcae
  • Junin Antpitta: Grallaria rufula obscura –> Grallaria obscura
  • antpitta sp. (Rufous/Chestnut Antpitta complex): Grallaria rufula –> Grallaria sp. (rufula/blakei complex)
  • Speckle-breasted Antpitta: Hylopezus nattereri –> Cryptopezus nattereri
  • White-lored Antpitta: Hylopezus fulviventris –> Myrmothera fulviventris
  • Amazonian Antpitta: Hylopezus berlepschi –> Myrmothera berlepschi
  • Thicket Antpitta: Hylopezus dives –> Myrmothera dives
  • Ampay Tapaculo: Scytalopus [undescribed Ampay form] –> Scytalopus whitneyi
  • Jalca Tapaculo: Scytalopus [undescribed Millpo form] –> Scytalopus frankeae
  • Utcubamba Tapaculo: Scytalopus latrans intermedius –> Scytalopus intermedius
  • Mayan Antthrush: Formicarius analis [moniliger Group] –> Formicarius moniliger
  • South American Leaftosser (Andean): Sclerurus mexicanus andinus –> Sclerurus obscurior andinus
  • South American Leaftosser (Dusky): Sclerurus mexicanus obscurior –> Sclerurus obscurior obscurior
  • South American Leaftosser (Amazonian): Sclerurus mexicanus peruvianus –> Sclerurus obscurior peruvianus
  • South American Leaftosser (Guianan): Sclerurus mexicanus macconnelli –> Sclerurus obscurior macconnelli
  • South American Leaftosser (Atlantic): Sclerurus mexicanus bahiae –> Sclerurus obscurior bahiae
  • Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Line-throated): Dendrocincla fuliginosa [fuliginosa Group] –> Dendrocincla fuliginosa fuliginosa/rufoolivacea
  • Uniform Woodcreeper (Uniform): Hylexetastes perrotii uniformis –> Hylexetastes uniformis uniformis
  • Uniform Woodcreeper (Brigida’s): Hylexetastes perrotii brigidai –> Hylexetastes uniformis brigidai
  • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Rondonia): Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus –> Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus fuscicapillus
  • Dusky-capped Woodcreeper (Layard’s): Lepidocolaptes layardi –> Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus layardi
  • Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner: Philydor rufum –> Dendroma rufa
  • Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner: Philydor erythropterum –> Dendroma erythroptera
  • Chinchipe Spinetail: Synallaxis stictothorax chinchipensis –> Synallaxis chinchipensis
  • White-crowned Manakin: Dixiphia pipra –> Pseudopipra pipra
  • White-crowned Manakin (Zeledon’s): Dixiphia pipra anthracina –> Pseudopipra pipra anthracina
  • White-crowned Manakin (White-crowned): Dixiphia pipra [pipra Group] –> Pseudopipra pipra [pipra Group]
  • Black-and-gold Cotinga: Tijuca atra –> Lipaugus ater
  • Gray-winged Cotinga: Tijuca condita –> Lipaugus conditus
  • Sierra de Lema Flycatcher: Mionectes macconnelli roraimae –> Mionectes roraimae
  • Fulvous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant: Euscarthmus meloryphus fulviceps –> Euscarthmus fulviceps
  • Rufous-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant: Euscarthmus meloryphus meloryphus/paulus –> Euscarthmus meloryphus
  • Chapada Flycatcher: Suiriri affinis –> Guyramemua affine
  • Suiriri/Chapada Flycatcher: Suiriri suiriri/affinis –> Suiriri suiriri/Guyramemua affine
  • Brujo Flycatcher (Galapagos): Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus –> Pyrocephalus nanus nanus
  • Brujo Flycatcher (San Cristobal): Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius –> Pyrocephalus nanus dubius
  • Little Ground-Tyrant: Muscisaxicola fluviatilis –> Syrtidicola fluviatilis
  • Rufous-webbed Bush-Tyrant: Polioxolmis rufipennis –> Cnemarchus rufipennis
  • Fire-eyed Diucon: Xolmis pyrope –> Pyrope pyrope
  • Gray Monjita: Xolmis cinereus –> Nengetus cinereus
  • Black-crowned Monjita: Xolmis coronatus –> Neoxolmis coronatus
  • Salinas Monjita: Xolmis salinarum –> Neoxolmis salinarum
  • Rusty-backed Monjita: Xolmis rubetra –> Neoxolmis rubetra
  • Black-and-white Monjita: Xolmis dominicanus –> Heteroxolmis dominicana
  • Flammulated Flycatcher: Deltarhynchus flammulatus –> Ramphotrigon flammulatum
  • Rufous Grasswren (Pilbara): Amytornis whitei –> Amytornis whitei whitei
  • Rufous Grasswren (Sandhill): Amytornis oweni –> Amytornis whitei oweni
  • Streak-breasted Honeyeater: Meliphaga reticulata –> Territornis reticulata
  • Kimberley Honeyeater: Meliphaga fordiana –> Territornis fordiana
  • White-lined Honeyeater: Meliphaga albilineata –> Territornis albilineata
  • Forest Honeyeater: Meliphaga montana –> Microptilotis montanus
  • Mottled Honeyeater: Meliphaga mimikae –> Microptilotis mimikae
  • Yellow-gaped Honeyeater: Meliphaga flavirictus –> Microptilotis flavirictus
  • Mountain Honeyeater: Meliphaga orientalis –> Microptilotis orientalis
  • Scrub Honeyeater: Meliphaga albonotata –> Microptilotis albonotatus
  • Mimic Honeyeater: Meliphaga analoga –> Microptilotis analogus
  • Tagula Honeyeater: Meliphaga vicina –> Microptilotis vicina
  • Graceful Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis –> Microptilotis gracilis
  • Cryptic Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis imitatrix –> Microptilotis imitatrix
  • Elegant Honeyeater: Meliphaga cinereifrons –> Microptilotis cinereifrons
  • Graceful/Elegant Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis/cinereifrons –> Microptilotis gracilis/cinereifrons
  • Meliphaga/Territornis/Microptilotis sp.: Meliphaga sp. –> Meliphaga/Territornis/Microptilotis sp.
  • Alor Myzomela: Myzomela [undescribed Alor form] –> Myzomela prawiradilagae
  • Taliabu Myzomela: Myzomela [undescribed Taliabu form] –> Myzomela wahe
  • Variable Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha [fortis Group] –> Colluricincla fortis
  • Waigeo Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha affinis –> Colluricincla affinis
  • Mamberamo Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha [obscura Group] –> Colluricincla obscura
  • Sepik-Ramu Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha [tappenbecki Group] –> Colluricincla tappenbecki
  • Arafura Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group] –> Colluricincla megarhyncha
  • Tagula Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha discolor –> Colluricincla discolor
  • Rufous Shrikethrush: Colluricincla megarhyncha [rufogaster Group] –> Colluricincla rufogaster
  • Western Whistler: Pachycephala occidentalis –> Pachycephala fuliginosa
  • Peleng Fantail: Rhipidura [undescribed form] –> Rhipidura habibiei
  • square-tailed drongo sp.: Dircurus occidentalis/sharpei/ludwigii –> Dicrurus occidentalis/sharpei/ludwigii
  • Chinese Gray Shrike: Lanius sphenocercus sphenocercus –> Lanius sphenocercus
  • Giant Shrike: Lanius sphenocercus giganteus –> Lanius giganteus
  • Chinese Gray/Giant Shrike: Lanius sphenocercus –> Lanius sphenocercus/giganteus
  • Yellow-billed Shrike: Corvinella corvina –> Lanius corvinus
  • Magpie Shrike: Corvinella melanoleuca –> Lanius melanoleucus
  • Canada Jay (Rocky Mts.): Perisoreus canadensis capitalis/albescens –> Perisoreus canadensis capitalis/bicolor
  • Canada Jay (Pacific): Perisoreus canadensis [obscurus Group] –> Perisoreus canadensis obscurus/griseus
  • Pacific Robin (Vanuatu): Petroica pusilla [pusilla Group] –> Petroica pusilla [similis Group]
  • Dunn’s Lark: Eremalauda dunni dunni –> Eremalauda dunni
  • Arabian Lark: Eremalauda dunni eremodites –> Eremalauda eremodites
  • Dunn’s/Arabian Lark: Eremalauda dunni –> Eremalauda dunni/eremodites
  • Asian/Turkestan Short-toed Lark: Alaudala cheleensis/rufescens –> Alaudala cheleensis/heinei
  • Mediterranean/Turkestan Short-toed Lark: Alaudala rufescens –> Alaudala rufescens/heinei
  • Greater Short-toed Lark/Alaudala sp.: Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala cheleensis/rufescens –> Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala sp.
  • Kilombero Cisticola: Cisticola [undescribed Kilombero form] –> Cisticola bakerorum
  • White-tailed Cisticola: Cisticola [undescribed White-tailed form] –> Cisticola anderseni
  • Gray’s Grasshopper Warbler: Locustella fasciolata –> Helopsaltes fasciolatus
  • Sakhalin Grasshopper Warbler: Locustella amnicola –> Helopsaltes amnicola
  • Gray’s/Sakhalin Grasshopper Warbler: Locustella fasciolata/amnicola –> Helopsaltes fasciolatus/amnicola
  • Marsh Grassbird: Locustella pryeri –> Helopsaltes pryeri
  • Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler: Locustella certhiola –> Helopsaltes certhiola
  • Middendorff’s Grasshopper Warbler: Locustella ochotensis –> Helopsaltes ochotensis
  • Pleske’s Grassho