As part of our commitment to data quality, accessibility, and ease of use, we strive to use an integrated taxonomy across eBird, Macaulay Library, Birds of the World, Merlin and other Cornell Lab of Ornithology projects. Our 2023 update includes 3 newly-described species, 124 species gained because of splits, and 16 species lost through lumps, resulting in a net gain of 111 species and a new total of 11,017 species recognized worldwide.

We have now completed the process of updating records in eBird. This includes your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists; data entry should be behaving normally, but you may notice unexpected species appearing on eBird Alerts as eBirders continue to learn the new taxonomy (this issue will diminish with time). If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened. If you still see records appearing in unexpected ways please write to us.

Fire-throated Flowerpecker Dicaeum luzoniense © Robert Hutchinson / Macaulay Library

Fire-breasted Flowerpecker is one of many species with splits from Southeast Asia this year, with three of eBird’s existing subspecies groups being divided out from the widespread form, representing three new range restricted species—Sumatran Flowerpecker (of Sumatra), Cambodian Flowerpecker (of Cambodia and e. Thailand), and Fire-throated Flowerpecker (of the Philippines, shown here).


2023 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2023 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2023) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2023 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download, each as either an Excel spreadsheet or comma-delimited (csv) format.

The Clements Checklist 2023 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. This year’s changes incorporates the latest supplement to the AOS-NACC checklist, the 64th supplement as well as many changes adopted by AOS-SACC as revisions to the South American Checklist through through 28 Sep 2023.

The below summary is largely in sync with the above Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:


When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and appear in eBird output fairly quickly. Staying on top of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to keep track. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it with “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies. For example, this year, those who have birded in North America will notice that your previous reports of Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis and Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis, have changed to Western Flycatcher but note that each will still carry the subspecies group (formerly species) expressed as Western Flycatcher (Cordilleran) Empidonax difficilis [occidentalis Group] and Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope) Empidonax difficilis [difficilis Group].

When splits occur, the process is more complicated. In most cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All records reported to a subspecies group level update automatically to the new species. When a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option. An example this year is Cattle Egret. Birds from Africa, Europe, and the Americas refer to Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis while those from South and Southeast Asia and Australasia pertain to Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus. In certain locations, such as the Middle East, Indian Ocean, or central Pacific Ocean, it will not be safe to assume a likely species based on geography, so your records will remain as Western/Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis/coromandus.

If you want to review your records of Western Cattle Egret or of Eastern Cattle Egret, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. The easiest is to go to My eBird, click on your Life List number, and then use the search option at the top to find Western Cattle Egret or Eastern Cattle Egret. You can then review the records in full. Importantly, in 2023 we added the ability to also view all your records of hybrids, slash, and spuh taxa. Reviewing slash taxa is especially useful during eBird Taxonomy Updates, and to find your Western/Eastern Cattle Egret records please go to My eBird > Life List and then expand the “Detailed Stats” option and then select “Additional Taxa”. The search at the top of the page is a species-level search, so sorting taxonomically and searching on the page (perhaps using a browser search) will help you find any Western/Eastern Cattle Egrets. Click “View all” to see all your records. Note that we do provide direct links to relevant slashes from this year’s splits and the direct link for the Cattle Egret slash is this:

There are some other ways to find your records too. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Checklists” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. Another option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for any species or taxon you are looking for to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

Finally, there are some significant changes to taxonomic sequence this year, mostly involving Charadriiformes (shorebirds, gulls, terns, jaegers, alcids) and Pycnonotidae (bulbuls). This may be a bit disorienting if you have memorized the sequence of species, but please be aware that Quick Entry makes it very easy to find and enter any species during data entry. Did you know that typing “37 weca” in eBird mobile will quickly add 37 Western Capercaillies to whatever total you have already entered? (Learn how!). Also, learning to search for a species within your browser may be helpful too, since this works to quickly jump to a species in any species list (e.g., bar chart, Location Explorer) on eBird.


There are three or more major world taxonomies, including BirdLife International Checklist, the IOC World Bird List, and eBird/Clements Checklist. Importantly, this revision continues the collaborative process of aligning global bird checklists, with the goal of a single consensus taxonomy. The Working Group Avian Checklists (WGAC) involves representatives from eBird/Clements, BirdLife International, the IOC World Bird List, Avibase, AOS-NACC, AOS-SACC, and other global experts in taxonomy, nomenclature, and classification. This is an ongoing effort, with about 85% of the world’s bird species assessed so far. It will take at least another year (maybe two) for eBird to fully incorporate these changes but we are committed to improving the clarity, efficiency, and accuracy of bird taxonomy through support for this team effort.


We provide bird names in eBird for some 58 languages (e.g., Arabic, Bulgarian, Thai, etc.), as well as 40 additional regional versions of some languages (total 98). For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where it’s called Grey Plover. You can access name preferences under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to show as common names or scientific names. One option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v13.2) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Bird Names in eBird article explains more about regional common name preferences.

Plumed Egret Ardea plumifera © David Southall / Macaulay Library

The widespread Intermediate Egret is divided into three species: Yellow-billed Egret of Africa, Plumed Egret of Australasia (shown here), and Medium Egret (of South, Southeast, and East Asia). All are distinctive in breeding condition (Medium Egret is the most distinctive, with a black bill and yellow lores), but they may not be reliably identified in non-breeding condition (as shown). Ranges of Medium and Plumed Egrets meet in Indonesia and n. Australia and Yellow-billed and Medium could overlap in Arabia; we hope careful study will reveal some useful field marks on non-breeding plumaged birds in the coming years. Medium Egret does tend to have more black on the bill tip as compared to other taxa, but this trait may have some overlap.


The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “My Records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for all below accounts can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error.

Starting this year we are documenting more explicitly the logic rules we have used to make bulk changes that assign records to a given species (later, the normal review process may help to correct or refine records, especially those with photos). These are highlighted in red-orange text: Regional Record Change Logic. In almost all cases (except very obvious errors by users and/or reviewers) we have retained the original identification by the observer. If the observer specified a subspecies, which later was split to become a species, that identification is retained. If the observer did not specify a subspecies, then we have tended to convert the record to the expected species if and only if the alternative species is impossible or extremely remote. However, since the probability of bird occurrence across space and time has infinite shades of gray, we need to make judgment calls. As an example, all east Asian records of Common House-Martin (Delichon urbicum, sensu lato) should pertain to the expected taxon, Siberian House-Martin (Delichon lagopodum) and we are not aware of any photos that pertain to Western House-Martin (Delichon urbicum, sensu stricto). But Western House-Martin has been documented once from Thailand (we still assume Thai records pertain to D. lagopodum). But in Mongolia both species are known to breed in the center of the country, so we treat that as an overlap zone and retain all records as a slash unless the observer identified them to the more specific taxon. 

Below are the splits for this update:

Chirruping Nightjar Caprimulgus griseatus and Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis are split from Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis. Vocal differences have recently been highlighted for griseatus, the monticolus Group, and the affinis Group, but the differences between griseatus and the taxa under Savanna Nightjar are more striking. Vocal differences in nightjars are extremely important for defining species limits and in this case they warranted a split. These taxa don’t overlap in range, so identification should not be a major issue.

  • Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Savanna Nightjar (Northern) Caprimulgus affinis [monticolus Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in South and Southeast Asia
    • Savanna Nightjar (Sunda) Caprimulgus affinis [affinis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Indonesia: Greater and Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi
  • Chirruping Nightjar Caprimulgus griseatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines

Lesser Sand-Plover Charadrius mongolus is split into Tibetan Sand-Plover Anarhynchus atrifrons and Siberian Sand-Plover Anarhynchus mongolus. These two species definitely needed to be split when it was revealed that Tibetan Sand-Plover is more closely related to Greater Sand-Plover Anarhynchus leschenaultii. The two species are quite easy to identify in breeding plumage, even when the head feathers are in intermediate stages of molt: Siberian has a bold headlight of white on the forehead, right over the bill, usually divided by a dark line; Tibetan has an all-dark frontal area. The two species are very difficult to identify in non-breeding plumage and covered in depth in a BirdingASIA article by eBird reviewer and supporter David Bakewell; a good summary of the split and the identification features in winter is on this blog addressing it from a Singaporean perspective. Interestingly, these segregate almost completely by range, with few sites known to harbor both species. Siberian moves north and south along the immediate Pacific coast, being common in e Russia, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Taiwan, e. China, Philippines, and Australia; Tibetan predominates in Thailand and the Malay Peninsula, south to Singapore and at least w. Indonesia. While vagrant Siberians are known from western Europe, North America, and South America, the species has yet to be recorded in Thailand (although the vast wintering flock of Tibetan can be hard to check in non-breeding plumage, which they wear for most of their time there). We still have much to learn and we look forward to carefully documented records appearing in eBird from new places!

  • Siberian Sand-Plover Anarhynchus mongolus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Siberia and Russian Far East to Kamchatka to Chukotsk Peninsula; winters Taiwan to Australia (but yet unrecorded in Thailand)
  • Tibetan Sand-Plover Anarhynchus atrifrons [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Pamirs to w China (w Xinjiang), Himalayas and Tibet to s Mongolia; winters to Africa, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra to Greater Sundas

Many records will remain undetermined, since the range boundaries in winter and migration are still being worked out. Many vagrant records, especially in western Asia and Europe could pertain to either species so using a slash whenever you are uncertain will be important.

Field identification from Greater Sand-Plover Anarhynchus leschenaultii remains a major challenge. Our former slash (Greater/Lesser Sand-Plover) now appears as sand-plover sp. and we encourage its use when identification is uncertain.

  • sand-plover sp. Anarhynchus atrifrons/mongolus/leschenaultii [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: Records from countries along the immediate Pacific coast are presumed to pertain to Siberian Sand-Plover, including far eastern Russia, North and South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, the east coast of China south to Fujian, the Philippines, the Moluccas in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Australia, New Zealand, and islands in the Pacific. Tibetan Sand-Plover is presumed for all records from w. Indonesia (Sumatra, Java), Singapore, peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, and through South Asia (e.g., India), the Middle East, Indian Ocean islands, and the west coast of Africa south to South Africa.

For the moment, records in the following regions have been unchanged by eBird Central (although some may be refined in the coming weeks with feedback from local experts): Mongolia, most of China (except Xizang and Qinhai = Tibetan and the coast from Fujian north = Siberian); note that coastal records from Guangdong south likely involve Siberian primarily, Macao and Hong Kong, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Cocos and Keeling Islands.

Vagrancy is well known in these species, and Siberian has occurred and could occur across the planet (e.g., Peru and Colombia have records). North American (and South American) records are presumed to pertain to Siberian Sand-Plover, but all documentation should be checked to confirm this. In Europe, we have not made any assumptions, since both species are known and possible: observers should carefully check any documentation, consult with regional Records Committees, and try to refine these identifications whenever possible.

Identification of shorebirds is one of the toughest skills to learn in birding since there are many similar look-alikes. With the split of Lesser Sand-Plover into Siberian Sand-Plover and Tibetan Sand-Plover we have a new and monumental challenge, although most areas get either one or the other commonly so the zones of overlap are quite limited. But both are potential vagrants out of range and do overlap in a strip from central Indonesia through Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and central China. While breeding-plumaged birds are usually straightforward, juveniles and birds in winter plumage (shown here) are incredibly similar. On Tibetan, look for the clean flanks (vs. dusky wash and barring on the flanks in Siberian) and notice its proportionately longer and slimmer bill.


Australian Tern Gelochelidon macrotarsa is split from Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica. Gull-billed Tern is a very widespread bird, occurring on all six major ice-free continents and is very consistent in its appearance throughout that wide range, so the fact that the resident Gelochelidon in Australia are notably long-legged, have thick bills with extra curve to the culmen (upper ridge of the bill), are paler backed, and have a larger dark eye smudge in winter plumage indicate that a very similar, but different, species is involved there. This creates a fun (?) new identification challenge for birders in Australia, where the smaller, shorter-legged Gull-billed Terns occur as rare visitors, and in Indonesia, where some Australian Terns may mix with Gull-billeds. We look forward to learning more about the movement and patterns of occurrence for these two species as birders tune into them more closely. This article discusses some of the differences to focus on.

  • Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread; rare to very rare visitor to Australia
  • Australian Tern Gelochelidon macrotarsa [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Australia; rare to Lesser Sundas and exceptional vagrant n to Philippines

These two species are very difficult to identify, especially without excellent and close looks, so this slash option will remain important for many individuals. Be sure to check your own data, since some records may remain in eBird as a slash (but you should update them to the species level if you are certain of the species involved).

Regional Record Change Logic: The only areas of potential overlap are Australasia, since Gull-billed Tern is a rare to casual non-breeding season visitor in Australia and Australian Tern occurs in non-breeding season in central Indonesia (e.g., Lesser Sundas, Moluccas) and has occurred as a vagrant to the Philippines. We have not yet assigned records in New Zealand, Cocos and Keeling Islands, Timor Leste, and the Lesser Sundas and Moluccas of Indonesia. In Australia, we preliminarily assigned all records to Australian Tern but we are reassessing records from North Australia and West Australia. We encourage observers to identify such birds carefully from photos (or filed notes) to help clarify the status of each taxon there.

Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora is split into Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi and Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora. This split within the “Great Albatrosses” has been observed for a long time by some other major taxonomies (e.g., IOC), regional taxonomies (e.g., in New Zealand), as well as field guides and seabird books. We encourage careful reporting, since these can be difficult to identify!

  • Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Chatham Islands and New Zealand; ranges circumpolar s oceans
  • Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Campbell and Auckland islands; ranges circumpolar s oceans

These two species are very difficult to identify, especially without excellent and close looks, so this slash option will remain important for many individuals. Be sure to check your own data, since some records may remain in eBird as a slash (but you should update them to the species level if you are certain of the species involved).

  • Northern/Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi/epomophora [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: These taxa overlap extensively; no changes have been made to observer-reported taxa.

Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans is split into four species: Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis, Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis, Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena, and Snowy Albatross Diomedea exulans. As with the Royal Albatross split, these divisions have been recognized in many quarters (but note the retention of gibsoni as a subspecies of antipodensis). Again, please report cautiously!

  • Snowy Albatross Diomedea exulans [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Southern oceans in South Georgia area
  • Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Breeds Tristan da Cunha group (Gough, Inaccessible, and, formerly, Tristan da Cunha), South Atlantic; ranges at sea at least in South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Oceans
  • Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Antipodean Albatross (New Zealand) Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Breeds Antipodes Islands and (small numbers) Campbell Island (New Zealand); ranges at sea at least to Tasman Sea east across southern Pacific Ocean
    • Antipodean Albatross (Gibson’s) Diomedea antipodensis gibsoni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Breeds Auckland Islands (New Zealand); ranges at sea at least from Tasman Sea to mid Pacific Ocean
  • Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Breeds Amsterdam I. (French subantarctic islands)

We provide these slashes for taxa likely to overlap:

  • Snowy/Tristan Albatross Diomedea exulans/dabbenena 
  • Snowy/Tristan/Antipodean Albatross Diomedea exulans/dabbenena/antipodensis 
  • Snowy/Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea exulans/amsterdamensis 

and remember, large albatross sp. Diomedea sp. is always there to cover a great albatross in the Royal or Wandering complex that can’t be further narrowed down.

Regional Record Change Logic: These taxa overlap extensively; no changes have been made to observer-reported taxa.

Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos is split into Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri and Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos. To identify adults, focus on the gray head of Atlantic and whitish head of Indian; note that the shape of the yellow “nose” stripe, darker and more extensive black in lores of Atlantic, and bill structure differ as well. Identifying immatures and subadults is still a challenge. Thus far, North Atlantic records have all pertained to the expected Atlantic species. We look forward to learning more from your careful eBird reports!

  • Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tristan da Cunha and Gough islands.; ranges southern oceans
  • Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Breeds on s Indian Ocean islands; ranges southern oceans

These two species are very difficult to identify, especially without excellent and close looks, so this slash option will remain important for many individuals. Be sure to check your own data, since some records may remain in eBird as a slash (but you should update them to the species level if you are certain of the species involved).

  • Atlantic/Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche chlororhynchos/carteri [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: Records from the South Atlantic (north of South Africa) are presumed to pertain to Atlantic, while those from the Indian Ocean (away from South Africa) are presumed to pertain to Indian. South Africa is treated as an area of overlap and no changes have been made to observer-reported taxa.

Jamaican Petrel Pterodroma caribbaea and Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata are split from Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata. Jamaican Petrel is an overdue split, but unfortunately is believed extinct and unlikely to be refound; it was markedly different from Black-capped in that its plumage was entirely dark. The two forms of Black-capped Petrel remain and there is still an open question about whether those represent different species themselves, given that they breed and forage in different areas (we badly need audio of the calls of both forms, but White-faced breeding areas are not well known).

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is split into Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus and Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis. Eastern Cattle Egret looks strikingly different from Western Cattle Egret in breeding plumage, when it looks like its entire upperparts were dipped in butterscotch sauce. Western Cattle Egret by comparison, looks like it just ended up with a small amount of the same sauce on its crest and breast feathers. The overall look is strikingly different and makes these instantly recognizable. In non-breeding plumage, however, structure may be the only hope of correct identification: Western Cattle Egret is short-necked and short-legged, recalling a night-heron or a Butorides heron (Green or Striated Heron), while Eastern Cattle Egret looks comparatively long-necked and long-legged and more like a slightly short-billed version of an “Intermediate” Egret (i.e., Medium, Plumed, or Yellow-billed Egret). In fact, one vagrant Eastern Cattle Egret was misidentified and originally published as Hawaii’s first Ardea intermedia.

Western Cattle Egret occurs widely in Africa and Europe, and is the bird that has colonized the New World. Eastern Cattle Egret is common from South Asia through East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Either taxon could occur at islands in the central Pacific (although Western Cattle Egret has populated Hawaii and the Galapagos) or Indian Ocean; vagrant Eastern Cattle Egrets are known from the Aleutian Islands, Midway and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and the Seychelles, while either Western or Eastern Cattle Egrets can occur in parts of Arabia, Iran, and the “stans”. Any records in those regions should be identified with care.

  • Western Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Middle East
  • Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: South and Southeast Asia and Australasia

These two species are very difficult to identify in non-breeding plumage, especially without excellent and close looks, so this slash option will remain important for many individuals. Be sure to check your own data, since some records may remain in eBird as a slash (but you should update them to the species level if you are certain of the species involved).

Regional Record Change Logic: These two taxa segregate surprisingly well by range. From Pakistan and Afghanistan east are Eastern, while all records from Arabia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas have been converted to Western. The one exception pertains to records from Midway and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands; Western predominates there but Eastern is known as a vagrant so records are being checked first.

Intermediate Egret Ardea intermedia is split into Plumed Egret Ardea plumifera, Yellow-billed Egret Ardea brachyrhyncha, and Medium Egret Ardea intermedia. This widespread species complex is similar in size and structure, with size and proportions intermediate between two other egrets that are yell0w-billed in immature and winter plumages: Great Egret Ardea alba and Western/Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis/coromandus. However, they are all strikingly different in breeding condition, with the Asian birds breaking up moderate similarities between African and Australasian birds. Medium Egrets (in Asia) show an all black bill and yellowish lores (recalling Snowy Egret from the Americas or nigripes Little Egret from Australia, but with a thicker and blunter bill) (photo). Yellow-billed Egrets (in Africa) have orange bills with greenish lores that become vibrant red orange (with a paler orange tip) with lime green lores in high condition (photo). Plumed Egrets (in Australia) closely resemble the breeding condition of Yellow-billed Egret, with subtle differences in loral color (photo); fortunately these two taxa are the most distant and unlikely to overlap. These breeding condition differences, and the sharp changeover between taxa, was enough to justify a split that BirdLife International put in place several years ago.

Potential overlap between these species is fairly limited, but identification can be a major challenge in those areas, since field marks in non-breeding plumages are not well understood–some birds may be unidentifiable.

In Australia, Plumed Egret is expected but Medium Egret has been convincingly documented from northern Queensland and Perth; this article delves into the subtle nuances of identification of these birds by structure and illustrates just how difficult this identification can be. In Indonesia, the relative distribution of the two taxa is poorly known; in the western portion of Indonesia Medium Egret predominates while in the Eastern portion, Plumed Egret is more expected. Records from Central Indonesia could pertain to either. In certain areas of the Middle East, both Yellow-billed and Medium Egret are possible; Saudi Arabia for example has records close to areas of Yellow-billed Egret occurrence across the Red Sea, but the appearance of most birds to date better matches Medium Egret. Hopefully area birders will learn more, especially if they can photograph birds entering breeding condition.

In areas of uncertainty, please use the slashes we have set up:

Note that the name Medium Egret is somewhat tentative; we are open to other ideas (but continuing to use Intermediate Egret is not a viable option, given its long use for the widespread taxon).

Regional Record Change Logic: In Saudi Arabia and Timor-Leste and parts of Indonesia (Lesser Sundas and Moluccas) we retain observer-reported taxa, as we continue to research which taxa occur there and in what ratios.

Eurasian Goshawk Accipiter gentilis and American Goshawk Accipiter atricapillus are split from Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Consistent plumage and vocal differences, and genetic data that indicate that these two species are not each other’s closest relatives, have led to this split which is now widely adopted (including by AOS-NACC). While immature plumages are strikingly different between the Eurasian and American birds, looking at the adult soft parts and plumage helps make clear why these should in fact be treated as separate species: Eurasian birds tend to have wide-awake yellowish eyes while they are an angry red in American and the barring in adults is rather broad (much like a Eurasian Sparrowhawk) in Eurasian birds and very very finely vermiculated in American birds.

  • Eurasian Goshawk Accipiter gentilis [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Widely in Eurasia
  • American Goshawk Accipiter atricapillus [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Widely in Canada, the US, and nw Mexico

American Goshawk has been documented a couple times in Europe and Eurasian Goshawk is known from one specimen in Labrador and a few records in the Aleutian Islands of Western Alaska, so this split adds a species to both the Western Palearctic and North American lists. Almost all birds are safely identified by range, but for birds seen in the Aleutians or other spots in between the regular ranges, where vagrants from either side are possible, we do have a slash, just in case.

A couple related taxa are changing subtly as well:

  • Cooper’s Hawk x American Goshawk (hybrid) Accipiter cooperii x atricapillus [map] [media] [my records]
  • Cooper’s Hawk/American Goshawk Accipiter cooperii/atricapillus [map] [media] [my records]
American and Eurasian Goshawks don’t overlap in range, usually, but both are strong fliers and vagrants have occurred on the wrong continent, so astute birders should be ready for them. Immatures are extremely similar, but adults can be so strikingly different that it might be hard to see why they were lumped for so long: compare the fine vermiculations of American vs. the heavy dark breast barring of Eurasian as well as the striking differences in eye color (deep red in American and orange or yellowish-orange in Eurasian).

Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus is split into four species: Northern Black-throated Trogon Trogon tenellus, Choco Black-throated Trogon Trogon cupreicauda, Atlantic Black-throated Trogon Trogon chrysochloros, and Amazonian Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus. This is yet another in a series of recent splits of trogons in the Americas (Violaceous, White-tailed, and Black-tailed Trogon being three other recent splits). These taxa all differ in vocalizations and differ subtly in plumage. There is no overlap in range, however, so your personal records should all fall out neatly into the new species. Note that the Alagoas and Southern subspecies groups are another potential split, but are less well-differentiated than the others and for now are treated as conspecific.

  • Northern Black-throated Trogon Trogon tenellus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: mostly Middle America, from tropical se Honduras to extreme nw Colombia
  • Choco Black-throated Trogon Trogon cupreicauda [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical w Colombia and w Ecuador
  • Amazonian Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widely in Amazonia, including areas e of the Andes in Colombia and Ecuador, the entirety of the range in Venezuela, Guianas, and Peru,
        and all of the range in Brasil except the Atlantic Forest of the Southeast
  • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon Trogon chrysochloros [map] [media] [my records]
    • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon (Alagoas) Trogon chrysochloros muriciensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Alagoas, Brazil (Murici forest)
    • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon (Southern) Trogon chrysochloros chrysochloros [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Brazil to Paraguay and ne Argentina

African Pied Hornbill Lophoceros fasciatus is split into West African Pied Hornbill Lophoceros semifasciatus and Congo Pied Hornbill Lophoceros fasciatus. Differences are subtle, but West African is consistently different from Congo in white tail feather tips (vs. all white outer tail feathers), black vs. reddish bill bill tip, and a longer blackish bar restricted to the lower mandible. Given these fairly subtle differences, it is helpful that their ranges don’t really overlap!

  • West African Pied Hornbill Lophoceros semifasciatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Senegambia to just east of Niger River
  • Congo Pied Hornbill Lophoceros fasciatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Nigeria (east of Niger River) to Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda

There are small areas of potential overlap, so a slash is available in cases where the species is uncertain.

  • West African/Congo Pied Hornbill Lophoceros semifasciatus/fasciatus [map] [media] [my records]

White-crested Hornbill Horizocerus albocristatus is split into Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill Horizocerus cassini and Western Long-tailed Hornbill Horizocerus albocristatus. These two striking, bushy-crested hornbill species are quite similar but differ in cheek color: whitish in Western and dark in Eastern. They also are fully separated by range, so never really present an identification issue and cannot possibly be confused with any other hornbill. Wow!

  • Western Long-tailed Hornbill Horizocerus albocristatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Humid forests of Guinea to Ghana
  • Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill Horizocerus cassini [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Nigeria through Congo basin to w Uganda and n Angola

There are small areas of potential overlap, so a slash is available in cases where the species is uncertain.

  • Western/Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill Horizocerus albocristatus/cassini [map] [media] [my records]

Black Dwarf Hornbill Horizocerus hartlaubi is split into Eastern Dwarf Hornbill Horizocerus granti and Western Dwarf Hornbill Horizocerus hartlaubi. The differences between these two are subtle but consistent: white-spotted wings and reddish ridge to the upper mandible in Eastern and unmarked dark wings and a dark ridge to the mandible in Western. Again, like the hornbills above, range will be your best field mark to focus on.

  • Western Dwarf Hornbill Horizocerus hartlaubi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sierra Leone to northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (west of the Congo River)
  • Eastern Dwarf Hornbill Horizocerus granti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Congo Basin of Central African Republic to Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda

There are small areas of potential overlap, so a slash is available in cases where the species is uncertain.

Black-eared Barbet Psilopogon duvaucelii is split from Blue-eared Barbet Psilopogon cyanotis. The two species are almost identical in voice but have striking differences in face pattern and a narrow contact zone. A third member of the complex, Yellow-eared Barbet Psilopogon australis (formerly Little Barbet), is restricted to Java and Bali and has been split for multiple years but illustrates how species limits turn over in this species.

  • Blue-eared Barbet Psilopogon cyanotis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Southeast Asia south down Malay Peninsula to southern Thailand
  • Black-eared Barbet Psilopogon duvaucelii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: southern Thai-Malay Peninsula (from southern Thailand southward), Sumatra (and adjacent islands), Bangka Island, and Borneo

There is an overlap (and hybrid!) zone in southern Thailand and northern Malaysia: please use the hybrid option for birds with intermediate characteristics (e.g., a mix of blue and black on the ear coverts) and use the slash for birds heard only (the songs and calls are not safely identified) or seen poorly.

  • Blue-eared/Black-eared Barbet Psilopogon cyanotis/duvaucelii [map] [media] [my records]
  • Blue-eared x Black-eared Barbet (hybrid) Psilopogon cyanotis x duvaucelii [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: While most records are readily assigned, the species do come in contact, can hybridize, and some records cannot be assigned based on probability from the area of contact. Almost all records from Thailand pertain to Blue-eared and almost all of those from Malaysia pertain to Black-eared, but there are a couple exceptions. It seems that only Blue-eared occurs in Perlis, Malaysia and only Black-eared occurs in Thailands three southeasternmost provinces: Yala, Pattani, and
Narathiwat. This leaves records from Songkhla, Thailand, as among the most difficult: westerly ones are clearly Blue-eared and eastern ones are Black-eared, but those in the center of the province (e.g., Khao Nam Khang NP area) are retained as the observer originally reported them (so those not identified to subspecies are now a slash). Be very cautious reporting in this area, since hybrids occur and use the slash liberally for birds not identified carefully by sight. The same applies in a swath of central Kedah, Malaysia and on Gunung Raya, since we are unsure which species occurs in those areas. We invite feedback on areas in this region so that records can be assigned safely to one species or another.

Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius is split into Necklaced Woodpecker Dryobates pernyii and Crimson-naped Woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius. Superficially similar, these two differ consistently in plumage, with Crimson-naped being washed with faint yellowish below (vs. white and black plumage) and lacks the eponymous bold black necklace of Necklaced Woodpecker.

  • Crimson-naped Woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Himalayas (Nepal to n Assam), SE Tibet, to adjacent n Myanmar
  • Necklaced Woodpecker Dryobates pernyii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Myanmar to Thailand, Laos, n Vietnam and s China (nw Yunnan, Sichuan and Xinjiang north to Gansu and central Hubei)

There are small areas of potential overlap, so a slash is available in cases where the species is uncertain.

  • Crimson-naped/Necklaced Woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius/pernyii [map] [media] [my records]

Malabar Flameback Chrysocolaptes socialis is split from Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus. These species are allopatric (fully segregated by range) and have minor differences in plumage (e.g., back color) but have fairly striking vocal differences that help support their recognition at the species level. Malabar Flameback is restricted to southwestern India while Greater occurs throughout the remainder of the range in South and Southeast Asia.

  • Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Southeast Asia
  • Malabar Flameback Chrysocolaptes socialis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Western Ghats and coastal w India

Zebra Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis is split from Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristisThese two species differ subtly– Zebra has blacker underparts, a white vs. buffy rump, a more evenly barred face, and richer red moustachial stripe. Zebra is endemic to Java, and Buff-rumped does not occur there, so this adds an endemic for Java and for Indonesia and simplifies the field identification.

  • Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes grammithorax [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Myanmar and pen. Thailand to Sumatra, Borneo and adj. islands
  • Zebra Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Java

Fine-banded Woodpecker Campethera taeniolaema is split from Tullberg’s Woodpecker Campethera tullbergi. These two species are similar but widely separated in range, so confusion in the field is impossible if your GPS and eBird Mobile apps are working correctly–just make sure to review which species occurs in the area where you are birding! Tullberg’s differs from Fine-banded in subtleties of head pattern, underparts pattern, presence of red flecking on lesser coverts, black vs. maroon lores in the female, and its longer bill

  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker Campethera tullbergi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mountains of se Nigeria and w Cameroon; Bioko I.
  • Fine-banded Woodpecker Campethera taeniolaema [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:E Democratic Republic of the Congo to Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, n and w Tanzania and w and c Kenya

Citron-crested Cockatoo Cacatua citrinocristata is split from Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea. Citron-crested is endemic to Sumba while Yellow-crested is widespread throughout much of the rest of the species’s range in Sulawesi, islands in the Flores Sea, and Lesser Sundas. It differs primarily in its orangey crest, but also in its longer tail and in the bill color of juveniles. Like most parrots in the region, it is imperiled by the illegal bird trade, is Critically Endangered, and sightings are protected by eBird’s Sensitive Species procedures.

  • Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulawesi, islands in the Flores Sea, and Lesser Sundas
  • Citron-crested Cockatoo Cacatua citrinocristata [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sumba

Comoro Black Parrot Coracopsis sibilans is split from Lesser Vasa Parrot Coracopsis nigra. Lesser Vasa Parrot is widespread in Madagascar, but Comoro Black Parrot is restricted to the Comoro Islands. It is smaller than Lesser Vasa and has some subtle plumage differences and adds to a growing list of Comoro archipelago endemics.

Comoro Black Parrot overlaps on the Comoro Islands with Greater Vasa Parrot, and Lesser Vasa Parrot co-occurs with that species on Madagascar, so we have slashes in place for each scenario.

Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus is split into four species: Moluccan Eclectus Eclectus roratus, Sumba Eclectus Eclectus cornelia, Tanimbar Eclectus Eclectus riedeli, and Papuan Eclectus Eclectus polychloros. This genus, formerly restricted to a single extant species, is recognized as a more diverse assemblage of four species, each with distinctive plumage. The change from Eclectus Parrot to five species of Eclectus (the fifth being the extinct Oceanic Eclectus Eclectus infectus) recognizes the distinctive features of this genus and helps reduce the huge number of birds named Something-or-other Parrot in the world.

  • Moluccan Eclectus Eclectus roratus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N, central, and S Moluccas
  • Sumba Eclectus Eclectus cornelia [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sumba
  • Tanimbar Eclectus Eclectus riedeli [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tanimbar
  • Papuan Eclectus Eclectus polychloros [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Papua New Guinea, Aru, Biak, Solomon Islands, and extreme n. Queensland, Australia

Especially when escapees are involved away from native range, it may be useful to have the genus-level spuh option:

Simeulue Parrot Psittinus abbotti is split from Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus. A highly range-restricted taxon, from islands known for their endemism off the west coast of Sumatra, is split from the widespread Blue-rumped Parrot. Congratulations to anyone who gains a species from having seen this remote and obscure bird!

  • Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Thailand to s Myanmar, Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo
  • Simeulue Parrot Psittinus abbotti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Simeulue and Siumat islands (off w coast of Sumatra)

Blue-backed Parrot Tanygnathus everetti is split from Azure-rumped Parrot Tanygnathus sumatranus. As is the case with many taxa, the birds in the Philippines are being shown to be different from those in Indonesia, so this split is not overall too surprising, despite the fairly subtle differences.

The slash may only be needed for escapees out of range, but is there just in case:

  • Blue-backed/Azure-rumped Parrot Tanygnathus everetti/sumatranus [map] [media] [my records]

Macquarie Parakeet Cyanoramphus erythrotis is split from Red-crowned Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae. Macquarie Parakeet is extinct so this split won’t be relevant to any birdwatchers that are not ghosts (Happy Halloween!). For those reading this closely, we actually expect to re-lump this species in 2024…

  • Red-crowned Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: New Zealand, Kermadec, and Chatham Islands
  • Macquarie Parakeet Cyanoramphus erythrotis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Formerly Macquarie I. Extinct

Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii is split into Dusky-cheeked Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta melanogenia, Blue-fronted Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii, and Black-fronted Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta nigrifrons. These three fig-parrots are distinctive in plumage and can be found in different parts of the island of New Guinea: Blue-fronted in the far west, Black-fronted in the north, and Dusky-cheeked in the south (and on the Aru Islands of Indonesia). Good luck getting a look at their distinctive features as they screech and streak overhead though!

  • Dusky-cheeked Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta melanogenia [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S and SE Papua New Guinea and the Aru Islands
  • Blue-fronted Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: W New Guinea (Salawati I. and w Vogelkop Peninsula)
  • Black-fronted Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta nigrifrons [map] [media] [my records]
    • Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted) Cyclopsitta nigrifrons nigrifrons [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N New Guinea
    • Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted) Cyclopsitta nigrifrons amabilis/ramuensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: NE New Guinea (Ramu River district and Huon Peninsula to Milne Bay)

When the species is uncertain, we recommend using the general, genus-level option:

Papuan Lorikeet Charmosyna papou is split into Stella’s Lorikeet Charmosyna stellae and West Papuan Lorikeet Charmosyna papou. Superficially similar, West Papuan Lorikeet has a different face pattern and some slashes of yellow at the wing bend and undertail.

  • West Papuan Lorikeet Charmosyna papou [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: W New Guinea (montane forests of Vogelkop Peninsula)
  • Stella’s Lorikeet Charmosyna stellae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in New Guinea, except the far west

Biak Lorikeet Trichoglossus rosenbergii is split from Coconut Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus. A few years ago the Rainbow Lorikeet complex was divided into a number of species, but eBird retained Biak Lorikeet as a subspecies of Coconut Lorikeet. This year we further split that form, restricted to the endemic-rich Biak Island off the north side of New Guinea.

  • Coconut Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia
  • Biak Lorikeet Trichoglossus rosenbergii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Biak Island

Black-billed Hanging-Parrot Loriculus bonapartei is split from Philippine Hanging-Parrot Loriculus philippensis. The name says it all: look for the black bill on the new species with a very restricted range. Other details of its head pattern, including the distinctive yellow nape, signal that this is quite a different bird, despite some variation throughout the range of the Philippine species.

  • Philippine Hanging-Parrot Loriculus philippensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: widespread in Philippines
  • Black-billed Hanging-Parrot Loriculus bonapartei [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulu Archipelago (Bongao, Jolo and Tawitawi)

Timneh Parrot Psittacus timneh is split from Gray Parrot Psittacus erithacus. These two taxa have been quite confusing to sort out taxonomically. There has been genetic evidence that they are quite distinct, but some have considered them almost inseparable in the field. However, newer information shows clear differences, including a pale (not black) bill on Timneh and much darker body plumage. Part of the confusion seems to have been the birds on Principe, which possibly have involved both taxa; some mystery remains there, but modern records on Principe are clearly allied with erithacus.

  • Timneh Parrot Psittacus timneh [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Guinea to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali and w Ivory Coast
  • Gray Parrot Psittacus erithacus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Gray Parrot (Gray) Psittacus erithacus erithacus [map] [media] [my records] 
      • RANGE: Ivory Coast to Kenya, Tanzania, Príncipe, São Tomé and Bioko
    • Gray Parrot (Principe) Psittacus erithacus princeps [map] [media] [my records] 
      • RANGE: Príncipe I. (Gulf of Guinea)

While Gray Parrot is the abundant cagebird and likely escapee, any exotic record that shows characters of Timneh Parrot should be entered as the slash option. This slash also may be useful on Principe, where mysteries remain about the current status of Gray Parrot (Principe) Psittacus erithacus princeps, especially in light of apparent escapee records of Gray Parrot there.

Cordilleran Parakeet Psittacara wagleri is split from Scarlet-fronted Parakeet Psittacara frontatus. These two species differ in orbital ring color and differ subtly in the color and extent of the red forehead. They are widely separated in range so identification is straightforward in the native range.

  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet Psittacara wagleri [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Colombia to n Venezuela
  • Cordilleran Parakeet Psittacara frontatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Ecuador to central and s central Peru (Marañón Valley south to Ayacucho)

These two species do not overlap in native range, but could potentially occur as escapees outside the native range, where they would need to be identified with care. We retain a slash to help with any uncertain records under such circumstances.

  • Scarlet-fronted/Cordilleran Parakeet Psittacara wagleri/frontatus [map] [media] [my records]

Gray-lored Broadbill Serilophus rubropygius is split from Silver-breasted Broadbill Serilophus lunatus. These two are found to be much more different than previously thought, with obvious differences in loral color (gray vs. orangeish), wingtip shape (driven by Silver-breasted’s white-tipped flat-ended feather with a small point vs. rounded, barely white-tipped feathers). Other differences in head pattern and overall color give each a distinctive look.

  • Silver-breasted Broadbill Serilophus lunatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in SE Asia
  • Gray-lored Broadbill Serilophus rubropygius [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: NE India, Bhutan and e Bangladesh to ne Myanmar

We retain a slash for poorly-seen birds near areas of overlap:

  • Silver-breasted/Gray-lored Broadbill Serilophus lunatus/rubropygius [map] [media] [my records]

North Papuan Pitta Erythropitta habenichti and South Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii are split from Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii. The mega-split of Red-bellied Pitta into 16 species several years ago is mostly tacking back with this update to recognize fewer species, (see “Lumps” below), but these two are deemed worthy of an additional split.

  • North Papuan Pitta Erythropitta habenichti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N New Guinea (Weyland Mts. to Astrolabe Bay)
  • South Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii [map] [media] [my records]
    • South Papuan Pitta (D’Entrecasteaux) Erythropitta macklotii finschii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago (Fergusson and Goodenough Islands
    • South Papuan Pitta (Western) Erythropitta macklotii [macklotii Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Aru Islands, Raja Ampat Islands, w and s New Guinea, with some breeding ne Cape York Peninsula, Australia and wintering in New Guinea

Nicobar Hooded Pitta Pitta abbotti, Minahasa Hooded Pitta Pitta forsteni, Eastern Hooded Pitta Pitta novaeguineae, Biak Hooded Pitta Pitta rosenbergii, and Western Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida are split from Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida. If you’ve seen one pitta we are sure you will agree: the world needs more pittas! In addition to this one split above, the revision of this complex brings more pitta joy to the world. Vocal differences and plumage differences have supported genetics for this round of splits. Note that the cucullata subspecies of Western Hooded Pitta is migratory and has even reached Australia, so should be considered as one that could overlap with one of the resident forms.

  • Nicobar Hooded Pitta Pitta abbotti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Great and Little Nicobar islands
  • Western Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida [map] [media] [my records]
    • Western Hooded Pitta (Chestnut-crowned) Pitta sordida cucullata [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: breeds Himalayan foothills of northern India east to southern China (Yunnan), northern Myanmar and Indochina, south to Bangladesh, Thailand, and northwestern peninsular Malaysia; winters to southern peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and Java
    • Western Hooded Pitta (Sangihe) Pitta sordida sanghirana [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sangihe I. (ne of Sulawesi)
    • Western Hooded Pitta (Sunda) Pitta sordida mulleri/bangkana [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and western Sulu Islands
    • Western Hooded Pitta (Philippine) Pitta sordida sordida/palawanensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines
  • Minahasa Hooded Pitta Pitta forsteni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: northern Sulawesi (Minahasa Peninsula)
  • Eastern Hooded Pitta Pitta novaeguineae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Eastern Hooded Pitta (Numfor) Pitta novaeguineae mefoorana [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Numfor I. (off nw New Guinea)
    • Eastern Hooded Pitta (Papuan) Pitta novaeguineae novaeguineae/goodfellowi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:W Papuan islands, New Guinea and Karkar I., Aru Islands
  • Biak Hooded Pitta Pitta rosenbergii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Biak I. (off nw New Guinea)

Northern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia and Southern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea are split from White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea. These two look similar but have strong vocal differences.

  • Northern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Pearl Islands (Bay of Panama), NW Colombia to S Venezuela s of R. Orinoco (Bolívar and extreme n Amazonas), Tobago
  • Southern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Extreme e Colombia and s Venezuela (w Amazonas), Guyana, coastal Suriname, French Guiana, n and e Brazil

A slash is available for uncertain records:

  • Northern/Southern White-fringed Antwren Formicivora intermedia/grisea [map] [media] [my records]

Atuen Antpitta Grallaria atuensis and Boyaca Antpitta Grallaria alticola are split from Tawny Antpitta Grallaria quitensis. Following the recent mega-split of the Rufous Antpitta complex, the vocal differences evident in widely separated populations of Tawny Antpitta also warranted a split. In this case, the more widespread and familiar antpitta retains the name Tawny Antpitta, so please report your birds with caution and learn the new names if you have the good fortune to do some birding in the range of Atuen or Boyaca Antpitta.

  • Boyaca Antpitta Grallaria alticola [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Andes of Colombia
  • Tawny Antpitta Grallaria quitensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Central Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and extreme n Peru
  • Atuen Antpitta Grallaria atuensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Andes of n Peru (s Amazonas and e La Libertad)

Xingu Scythebill Campylorhamphus multostriatus and Tapajos Scythebill Campylorhamphus probatus are split from Curve-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus procurvoides. Major rivers in Amazonia define a lot of important bird distributions, often separating species with similar plumage that have obvious differences in vocalizations. That is the case here as well, so be sure to compare songs from the different species below to understand these splits more deeply. And if you take a boat down the Xingu River, be sure to keep separate checklists for each side of the river so your scythebills (and other birds!) all end up in the right species!

  • Curve-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus procurvoides [map] [media] [my records]
    • Curve-billed Scythebill (Zimmer’s) Campylorhamphus procurvoides sanus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: nw Amazonia, from Venezuela and Brazil (west of the Branco and Negro rivers) w to Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru n of the Amazon
    • Curve-billed Scythebill (Curve-billed) Campylorhamphus procurvoides procurvoides [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: e Venezuela to the Guianas and n Brazil (east of the Branco and Negro rivers)
    • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tupana) Campylorhamphus procurvoides gyldenstolpei [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: sw Amazonian Brazil, w of the Madeira River; possibly also in e Peru (s of the Amazon)
  • Tapajos Scythebill Campylorhamphus probatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Tapajos Scythebill (Rondonia) Campylorhamphus probatus probatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S-cent. Amazonian Brazil (Rio Madeira to Rio Tapajós)
    • Tapajos Scythebill (Tapajos) Campylorhamphus probatus cardosoi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: e Amazonian Brazil, between the Tapajós and Xingu rivers
  • Xingu Scythebill Campylorhamphus multostriatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: eastern Amazonian Brazil between the Xingu and Tocantins rivers

Pacific Hornero Furnarius cinnamomeus and Caribbean Hornero Furnarius longirostris are split from Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus. While all three have different vocalizations, they also differ in coloration. Pacific Hornero is strikingly pale (whitish on breast especially) compared to the others and has a striking whitish eye, while the other two are dark-eyed. Caribbean Hornero is most distinctive for its contrasting grayish crown and Pale-legged has the boldest supercilium. These taxa don’t overlap now, but as deforestation along major roads in the Andes, one has to wonder if Pacific and Pale-legged Horneros might come in contact in northern Peru.

  • Pacific Hornero Furnarius cinnamomeus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: W Ecuador and nw Peru
  • Caribbean Hornero Furnarius longirostris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Arid coastal n Colombia and nw Venezuela, N Colombia (Magdalena Valley) and w Venezuela (s Zulia)
  • Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in the Guianas and Amazonia, s to Bolivia

Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus and Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus cervinigularis are split from Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus. This split may be unfamiliar to many people, since it has not previously been recognized by major taxonomies or most field guides and since “Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner” is a widespread and familiar Neotropical “species”. To keep them straight, just remember they are arranged alphabetically from north to south: Fawn-throated is north of Ochre-throated. Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner has a rapid descending chattering song (listen here) while Ochre-throated, the southern taxon, has some slower and somewhat whiny descending notes; listen here. These two strikingly different vocal differences hold between the many subspecies and align with genetic differences, which have shown that Fawn-throated is more closely related to Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner Automolus extertus (of e. Costa Rica and w Panama) than it is to Ochre-throated. This basically requires the split. Further splits could be possible in this complex, but this revision helps to understand this widespread group of birds much better.

  • Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus cervinigularis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (Mexican) Automolus cervinigularis cervinigularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: southeastern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras
    • Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (hypophaeus) Automolus cervinigularis hypophaeus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Caribbean slope of e Nicaragua to nw Panama
  • Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (pallidigularis) Automolus ochrolaemus pallidigularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Panama to Colombia and nw Ecuador
    • Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (turdinus) Automolus ochrolaemus turdinus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical n and w Amazon basin
    • Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (ochrolaemus) Automolus ochrolaemus ochrolaemus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical e Peru to n Bolivia and w Brazil
    • Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (auricularis) Automolus ochrolaemus auricularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: NE Bolivia (Rio Beni) and w Brazil (Rio Purús to Rio Tapajós)

Since the relative distributions are not yet well-known using these species limits, we retain a slash option to help with any records that are uncertain.

  • Fawn-throated/Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus cervinigularis/ochrolaemus [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: Some uncertainty remains as to how and where these taxa change over in central Panama, so we are adopting a conservative stance for now and assign those records to a slash pending more vocal evidence for which species occurs where.

Eastern Woodhaunter Automolus subulatus and Western Woodhaunter Automolus virgatus are split from Striped Woodhaunter Automolus subulatus. These two taxa have long been known to have striking vocal differences and other taxonomies ave split them previously.

  • Western Woodhaunter Automolus virgatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Caribbean lowlands of e Nicaragua, lowlands of Costa Rica and Panama to w Colombia and w Ecuador
  • Eastern Woodhaunter Automolus subulatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical se Colombia and s Venezuela to n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil

Plain Thornbird Phacellodomus inornatus is split from Rufous-fronted Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons. As with other Furnariid (ovenbird) splits above, vocal differences are critically important. Calls of Plain are higher and faster (Colombia examples) while those of Rufous-fronted are lower and slower (Peru examples). The two populations are highly disjunct (see range maps below) and have moderate plumage differences.

  • Plain Thornbird Phacellodomus inornatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Llanos of ne Colombia and Venezuela to s Venezuela (n Bolívar)
  • Rufous-fronted Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons [map] [media] [my records]
    • Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Rufous-winged) Phacellodomus rufifrons specularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: ne Brazil (n Tocantins and s Maranhão e to Pernambuco and Alagoas)
    • Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Rufous-fronted) Phacellodomus rufifrons [rufifrons Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: e Bolivia and sw Brazil (Mato Grosso) to n Paraguay, and to nw Argentina and e Brasil (Piauí, Bahia and Minas Gerais); isolated population in NW Peru (Río Marañón Valley) and adjacent s Ecuador

Araguaia Spinetail Synallaxis simoni is split from White-lored Spinetail Synallaxis albilora. These taxa are well-separated and distinctive in vocalizations and plumage and have been recognized at the species level by other taxonomies for some time.

  • White-lored Spinetail Synallaxis albilora [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Bolivia (e Santa Cruz) to interior sw Brazil and n Paraguay
  • Araguaia Spinetail Synallaxis simoni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Pantanal of w Brazil (Araguaia Valley)

Note that with this split our former name for an undescribed spinetail in the genus Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed form) Certhiaxis [undescribed form] is getting a new name: Tocantins Spinetail (undescribed form). Since the Synallaxis has long been known as the Araguaia Spinetail, these two names felt too similar to retain. Hopefully the Certhiaxis will get formally described someday soon so we can do away with constantly-changing tentative names for that bird!

Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans and Andean Laniisoma Laniisoma buckleyi are split from Shrike-like Cotinga Laniisoma elegans. These two species are widely separated by range, differ vocally, and subtly in plumage with Andean birds being brighter yellow below with fewer markings. One of the more elusive and desired species in both regions, with this split we also align around the English name Laniisoma (meaning “shrike-bodied”) for both members of the genus…which makes the genus easy to remember! Structurally like a Cotinga, and also sometimes known as Elegant Mourner, we know know this is in Tityridae and allied with tityras and becards. This is a unique and cool pair of birds that deserves unique and cool names!

  • Andean Laniisoma Laniisoma buckleyi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Locally from tropical ne Colombia to nw Venezuela, E slope of Andes of e Ecuador and e Peru, and tropical nw Bolivia (La Paz)
  • Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical se Brazil (Espírito Santo to e Paraná)

Cryptic Becard Pachyramphus salvini is split from Black-and-white Becard Pachyramphus albogriseus. The odd name Cryptic Becard refers to the vexing history of this bird. Recent genetics had shown that a well-differentiated form was buried in the taxon that we knew as Black-and-white Becard, but the exact populations involved and the correct nomenclature for them took some work to suss out. The full story can be followed in an initial, unsuccessful proposal for AOS-SACC from February 2021 which was thankfully followed up by publication by Musher et al. 2023 and a follow-up proposal to AOS-SACC in January 2023. This case illustrates the mysteries that remain in the tropics to be worked out by careful attention to specimens, vocalizations, and genetics and highlight the diligent work by taxonomists that lay the backbone for the eBird Enterprise. The photos and sounds that the eBird community are helping to organize are increasingly critical to these taxonomic revisions, as can be seen by the Macaulay Library recordings that were a key feature of Musher et al. 2023. Thank you!

  • Black-and-white Becard Pachyramphus albogriseus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Costa Rica to w Panama (Chiriquí and Veraguas) and Subtropical E Andes of n Colombia (Boyacá) and Santa Marta Mts., and n Venezuela
  • Cryptic Becard Pachyramphus salvini [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: still not well-known; W slope of Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and Río Marañón drainage; also east slope of Andes from Ecuador to central Peru, perhaps only seasonally

We are just learning the distributions of these new species, and specimens reveal that there is some overlap, we encourage use of the slash option in any areas where more than one species is known or could possibly occur. There may be seasonality to the movements that bring them into contact, so we hope careful eBirding, with supportive photos and sound recordings, can help clarify the patterns that have flown under the radar for so long. Please use this slash liberally!

  • Black-and-white/Cryptic Becard Pachyramphus albogriseus/salvini [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: There is no evidence of Black-and-white occurring in the range of Cryptic Becard, so Pacific Slope records from Nariño, Ecuador, and Peru (south to Lambayeque) have all been converted to Cryptic. But since Cryptic seems to regularly occur on the east slope of the mountains (a most unusual pattern of occurrence) we are leaving all records in the region as a slash, including all of the east slope of Peru and Ecuador. In Colombia, records from the Western and Central Andes are presumed to pertain to Cryptic while those from the eastern Andes from Meta and Cundinamarca (near Bogotá northwards) are presumed to pertain to Black-and-white. East Slope records from southern Colombia are retained as a slash (as with in Ecuador), including some records from Cauca, Putumayo, Huila, and Caqueta. Much remains to be learned here; try for recordings whenever possible and use playback (responsibily, of course) to try to elicit songs that can confirm species ID whenever possible.

Atlantic Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus swainsoni and Tropical Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus are split from Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus. Royal Flycatcher has always been one of the most striking Neotropical species: a dull, awkward and disproportionate brown tweetybird on a branch one minute and a gaudy show-off the next. With this year’s update, we now have double the pleasure for this amazing species: an Atlantic Forest species from south-coastal Brasil is split off. While some have advocated for up to four species of Royal Flycatcher, by splitting the three groups of Tropical (e.g., past versions of the IOC World Bird List), we’ll be content with this one for now!

  • Tropical Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Pacific) Onychorhynchus coronatus occidentalis [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: W Ecuador (Esmeraldas) to extreme n Peru (Tumbes)
    • Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Northern) Onychorhynchus coronatus mexicanus/fraterculus [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Gulf lowlands of se Mexico (Veracruz) to NE Colombia to e Venezuela (w Zulia and w Barinas)
    • Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Amazonian) Onychorhynchus coronatus coronatus/castelnaui [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: widely in Amazonia, from E Venezuela and SE Colombia to n Bolivia and w Brazil (Amazonas)
          E Venezuela to the Guianas and n Amazonian Brazil
  • Atlantic Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus swainsoni [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: SE Brazil (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná)

Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus and Western Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis are split from Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus. These two are extremely similar in plumage but differ vocally, Importantly, recent genetics have shown deep splits that helped with the realignment of these taxa. There may be ore splits to come, one from the Guianan Shield of ne. South America is the next one to pay attention to.

  • Western Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Panama to central Venezuela and in nw. South America south to SW Amazonian Brazil s of the Amazon and w of the Madeira River, west into Amazonian Peru and Bolivia (this latter region occupied by the newly-described R. a. cryptus and overlapping with R. olivaceus)
  • Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: ne Peru, S Venezuela and the Guianas to south Amazonian Brazil between Purus and Tapajos rivers, and ne Peru; also se. Brazil from e Pará and Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro

The slash will be needed since ranges are still being worked out and birders are just starting to be come aware of this split.

  • Western/Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis/olivaceus [map] [media] [my records]

Bacan Myzomela Myzomela batjanensis is split from Sulawesi Myzomela Myzomela chloroptera. Highly restricted in range even on a fairly small island, the Bacan Myzomela differs in its pale breast without red (Sulawesi Myzomela has extensive red on the underparts). An additional wrinkle in the region is an undescribed taxon on nearby Obi. It does not yet have an option in eBird, and probably represents another new species: enter these as myzomela sp. until we can add this in October 2024 (if you should be so lucky!)

  • Sulawesi Myzomela Myzomela chloroptera [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulawesi, Salayar, Tanahjampea and Sula Islands
  • Bacan Myzomela Myzomela batjanensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Bacan

Long-billed Myzomela Myzomela longirostris is split from Red-collared Myzomela Myzomela rosenbergii. These two are similar but have some obvious differences in female plumage, with Long-billed having a striking reddish back even as a female. Long-billed has an extremely limited distribution so there won’t be much confusion after this split.

  • Red-collared Myzomela Myzomela rosenbergii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in New Guinea mountains
  • Long-billed Myzomela Myzomela longirostris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Goodenough I. (D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago), off e. New Guinea

Eastern Crested Berrypecker Paramythia montium and Western Crested Berrypecker Paramythia olivacea are split from Crested Berrypecker Paramythia montium. Paramythiidae had been a lonely family, with just two species–albeit striking ones: Tit Berrypecker (Oreocharis arfaki) and the striking Crested Berrypecker(s). With two species now the differences are subtle–look for the black nape on Western and brighter back, undertail, and overall plumage in Eastern. Fun to have 50% more species in the now-less-lonely family!

  • Western Crested Berrypecker Paramythia olivacea [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: central New Guinea (Weyland, Nassau and Jayawijaya Mts.)
  • Eastern Crested Berrypecker Paramythia montium [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Central Highlands and Mts. of se New Guinea and SE New Guinea (Mts. of Huon Peninsula)

The two may come in contact, so use the slash whenever unsure.

  • Western/Eastern Crested Berrypecker Paramythia olivacea/montium [map] [media] [my records]

Wetar Oriole Oriolus finschi is split from Timor Oriole Oriolus melanotis. Wetar is a bit north of Timor but that distance has been enough for these related orioles to diversify. Note that Wetar Oriole also occurs on Atauro (owned by Timor Leste) and the island of Timor is split between Timor Leste and Indonesia, so neither species ends up as a country endemic.

  • Timor Oriole Oriolus melanotis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Rote, Timor and Semau (e Lesser Sundas)
  • Wetar Oriole Oriolus finschi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Wetar and Atauro (e Lesser Sundas)

Ventriloquial Oriole Oriolus consobrinus is split from Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus. A recent in-depth study of vocalizations and genetics made the case for this split. Look for the denser underparts streaking of females and listen for it more “ventriloquial song usually having a three-note structure versus the fluty multisyllabic song of Dark-throated Oriole” (as stated by its Birds of the World account).

  • Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: widely in se. Asia, including s Myanmar and Thailand, the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, sw Borneo, the Mentawi Archipelago and adjacent islands off Sumatra
  • Ventriloquial Oriole Oriolus consobrinus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Borneo and adjacent islands and SW Philippines (Palawan and Culion)

The two are in contact in Borneo, so identifications will have to be made with extreme caution; next year we will need to add a slash option to cover records in areas of uncertainty (oops!).

Javan Oriole Oriolus cruentus is split from Black-and-crimson Oriole Oriolus cruentus. A very deep genetic divergence (9.4%) adds to more subtle plumage and vocal characteristics to demonstrate that these two are better treated as separate species. Javan Oriole is endemic to the island with perhaps the most aggressive bird trapping on the planet, and is already rather rare, so it is protected as a Sensitive Species.

  • Black-and-crimson Oriole Oriolus consanguineus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and mountains of n Borneo
  • Javan Oriole Oriolus cruentus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Java

Cockerell’s Fantail Rhipidura cockerelli is split into White-gorgeted Fantail Rhipidura coultasi and White-winged Fantail Rhipidura cockerelli. This is the fantail update, with no fewer than nine more new species to follow. This is an amazing group that has been great about dispersing around Southeast Asia and the southwestern Pacific and in the process has let evolution do its thing, diversifying into even more species than we previously appreciated.

  • White-winged Fantail Rhipidura cockerelli [map] [media] [my records]
    • White-winged Fantail (Dot-breasted) Rhipidura cockerelli lavellae [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Solomon Islands (Vellalavella and Ranongga)
    • White-winged Fantail (Black-breasted) Rhipidura cockerelli albina [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Solomon Islands (Kolombangara and Rendova)
    • White-winged Fantail (White-winged) Rhipidura cockerelli [cockerelli Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • Rhipidura cockerelli septentrionalis – Solomon Islands (Buka, Bougainville and Shortland)
      • Rhipidura cockerelli interposita – Solomon Islands (Choiseul and Santa Isabel)
      • Rhipidura cockerelli floridana – Solomon Islands (Florida and Tulagi)
      • Rhipidura cockerelli cockerelli – Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal)
  • White-gorgeted Fantail Rhipidura coultasi [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Solomon Islands (Malaita)

Supertramp Fantail Rhipidura semicollaris is split from Arafura Fantail Rhipidura dryas. Arafura Fantail was split from Rufous Fantail a few years back and this is an additional split, recognizing further diversity in the complex. All fantails are supertramps, as discussed above, meaning they have a remarkable ability to disperse. But this one really deserves the name occurring widely among small islands in Indonesia. Arafura Fantail thus becomes the Australian member of the Rufous Fantail complex that is restricted to the Northern Territories and West Australia (look for Australian Rufous Fantail on the east coast from Queensland to South Australia, and as a migrant to southern New Guinea).

  • Supertramp Fantail Rhipidura semicollaris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: widely in Indonesia, including islands of the Flores Sea, Lesser Sundas, Timor, Tanimbar Islands (Arafura Sea), Banda, Seram Laut, Tayandu Is. and Kai Is., and the Aru Islands
  • Arafura Fantail Rhipidura dryas [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Rhipidura dryas dryas in coastal n Australia (Kimberley to w Cape York Pen.) and
      • Rhipidura dryas streptophora in S New Guinea

Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons is split into six species: Gilolo Fantail Rhipidura torrida, Louisiade Fantail Rhipidura louisiadensis, Australian Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Santa Cruz Fantail Rhipidura melaenolaema, Micronesian Rufous Fantail Rhipidura versicolor, and Solomons Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufofronta. The second-largest split in this update involves six new species split from one. Most of these are concentrated in islands and archipelagos east of New Guinea, but Gilolo is an outlier on Halmahera, Bacan, and Obi in Indonesia and Australian Rufous Fantail is a very widespread and common species in eastern Australia. As with the above species, the dispersive abilities of fantails is on display here and contributes to their remarkable diversification.

  • Gilolo Fantail Rhipidura torrida [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Moluccas (Halmahera, Ternate, Bacan and Obi)
  • Australian Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: E Australia from Queensland (Cooktown to NSW border) to SE Australia (cent. Victoria); migrants move north in the austral winter, with some reaching s. New Guinea
  • Louisiade Fantail Rhipidura louisiadensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: D’Entrecasteaux and Louisiade archipelagos
  • Santa Cruz Fantail Rhipidura melaenolaema [map] [media] [my records]
    • Santa Cruz Fantail (Brown-fronted) Rhipidura melaenolaema agilis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Nendo (Santa Cruz Islands)
    • Santa Cruz Fantail (White-fronted) Rhipidura melaenolaema melaenolaema/utupuae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Vanikoro and Utupua (Santa Cruz Islands)
  • Micronesian Rufous Fantail Rhipidura versicolor [map] [media] [my records]
    • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Guam) Rhipidura versicolor uraniae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: formerly Guam (Mariana Islands); extinct
    • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Yap) Rhipidura versicolor versicolor [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Yap (Caroline Islands)
    • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Marianas) Rhipidura versicolor saipanensis/mariae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mariana Islands (Saipan, Tinian, Agiguan, and Rota)
  • Solomons Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufofronta [map] [media] [my records]
    • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Dark-throated) Rhipidura rufofronta ugiensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Ugi (Solomon Islands)
    • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Brown-backed) Rhipidura rufofronta [rufofronta Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Bougainville and Choiseul to Malaita (Solomon Islands)
    • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Rufous-backed) Rhipidura rufofronta russata/kuperi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Makira and Santa Anna (Solomon Islands)

Brown Fantail Rhipidura drownei is split into Bougainville Fantail Rhipidura drownei and Guadalcanal Fantail Rhipidura ocularis. Two Solomon Islands well-known for endemism contribute another fantail split for us.

  • Bougainville Fantail Rhipidura drownei [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Montane forests of Bougainville (Solomon Islands)
  • Guadalcanal Fantail Rhipidura ocularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Montane forests of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands)

Streaked Fantail Rhipidura verreauxi is split into New Caledonian Streaked Fantail Rhipidura verreauxi, Fiji Streaked Fantail Rhipidura layardi, and Vanuatu Streaked Fantail Rhipidura spilodera.

  • Vanuatu Streaked Fantail Rhipidura spilodera [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Vanuatu and Banks Group
  • Fiji Streaked Fantail Rhipidura layardi [map] [media] [my records]
    • Fiji Streaked Fantail (Taveuni) Rhipidura layardi rufilateralis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Taveuni (Fiji)
    • Fiji Streaked Fantail (Fiji) Rhipidura layardi layardi/erythronota [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Fiji (Ovalau, Viti Levu, Yaqaga and Vanua Levu)
  • New Caledonian Streaked Fantail Rhipidura verreauxi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: New Caledonia, Lifou and Maré islands

Palawan Drongo Dicrurus palawanensis and Short-tailed Drongo Dicrurus striatus are split from Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus. Two splits from the Philippine archipelago subdivide the very widespread Hair-crested Drongo with this update. Drongo diversity in Asia is pretty amazing and each time species limits are refined it gives an opportunity to understand these birds a bit better. Here, two Philippine subspecies are split from the more widespread Hair-crested Drongo. See also below for the reassignment of the Mentawai subspecies below (formerly with Sumatran Drongo)

  • Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus hottentottus/brevirostris [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Javan) Dicrurus hottentottus jentincki/faberi [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (White-eyed) Dicrurus hottentottus leucops/banggaiensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Mentawai) Dicrurus hottentottus viridinitens [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Bornean) Dicrurus hottentottus borneensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Obi) Dicrurus hottentottus guillemardi [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Sula) Dicrurus hottentottus pectoralis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Hair-crested Drongo (Sulu) Dicrurus hottentottus suluensis [map] [media] [my records]
  • Short-tailed Drongo Dicrurus striatus [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE:Philippines (Bohol, Leyte, Panaon, Samar, Calicoan, Basilan, Mindanao and Nipa)
  • Palawan Drongo Dicrurus palawanensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Palawan Drongo (Palawan) Dicrurus palawanensis palawanensis [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: southern Philippines (Palawan, Busuanga, Mapun, Culion, Balabac)
    • Palawan Drongo (Cuyo) Dicrurus palawanensis cuyensis [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Cuyo and Semirara

Paradise-crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus is split into Obi Paradise-crow Lycocorax obiensis and Halmahera Paradise-crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus. Not crows (Corvidae) but actually birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae), these are crow-like in their overall black plumage and most unlike the more striking members of the family. but this wasn’t always obvious, as Birds of the World writes “It was not until the early the mid-20th century that they generally and uncritically accepted to be birds of paradise. Early visitors to Wallacea thought they might be starlings!” Any plumage differences in all-black birds tend to be subtle, but these two have subtle plumage differences along with differences in size and vocalizations, which helped with this split.

Eastern Parotia Parotia helenae is split from Lawes’s Parotia Parotia lawesii. More birds-of-paradise? Yes please! And you can’t really appreicate these bhirds without watching the videos: here are some for Lawes’s and Eastern.

  • Lawes’s Parotia Parotia lawesii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: W and s highlands of Papua New Guinea
  • Eastern Parotia Parotia helenae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N watershed of Papua New Guinea (Waria to Milne Bay)

And a slash is available for good measure to use anywhere where doubt exists:

Palawan Crow Corvus pusillus is split from Slender-billed Crow Corvus enca. The distinctive calls of Palawan Crow are obvious “as soon as you get off the plane” and this has been an overdue split for eBird. There may be more splits to come here and with other crows, so continue to pay attention to those black birds that all look the same but sound and act a bit differently. And get recordings!

  • Slender-billed Crow Corvus enca [map] [media] [my records]
    • Slender-billed Crow (Sierra Madre) Corvus enca samarensis/sierramadrensis [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Philippines
    • Slender-billed Crow (Sunda) Corvus enca enca/compilator
        • RANGE: s Thai-Malay Peninsula, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra and associated islands, and Borneo, Java, Bali and Mentawi Archipelago
    • Slender-billed Crow (Sulawesi) Corvus enca celebensis/mangoli [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: Sulawesi
  • Palawan Crow Corvus pusillus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Palawan

Palm Crow Corvus palmarum is split into Cuban Palm-Crow Corvus minutus and Hispaniolan Palm-Crow Corvus palmarum. The two species are very similar, but differ subtly in vocalizations and certain displays. Each must be carefully identified since other crows–Cuban Crow Corvus nasicus on Cuba and White-necked Crow Corvus leucognaphalus on Hispaniola–occur on both islands. This adds two new endemic species for the Caribbean and one new endemic species for each island.

Thick-billed Berrypecker Melanocharis crassirostris is split from Spotted Berrypecker Melanocharis crassirostris. While males are quite similar, the underparts spotting is far more extensive in piperata and useful for identification. The two species don’t overlap, and are generally divided into east and west New Guinea.

  • Thick-billed Berrypecker Melanocharis crassirostris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: New Guinea (Mts. of Vogelkop Peninsula and Central Highlands)
  • Spotted Berrypecker Melanocharis piperata [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: SE New Guinea

Ashy Robin Heteromyias albispecularis is split into Black-capped Robin Heteromyias armiti and Arfak Robin Heteromyias albispecularis. These two are actuaklly markedly different in plumage, but also are well-separated by range.

  • Black-capped Robin Heteromyias armiti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: New Guinea (widespread except NW)
  • Arfak Robin Heteromyias albispecularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: NW New Guinea (Tamrau and Arfak mountains)

Madagascar Martin Riparia cowani is split from Plain Martin Riparia paludicola. Plain Martin, sometimes known as Brown-throated Martin, is a nondescript and widespread swallow in Africa. Madagascar Martin is also nondescript, but distinctive in color, vocalizations, and genetics and is hereby split. Note also that a new, undescribed Riparia has been discovered in Ethiopia and is added as an option in eBird with this update: there are still discoveries to be made in subtle and nondescript little birds!

Common House-Martin Delichon urbicum is split into Siberian House-Martin Delichon lagopodum and Western House-Martin Delichon urbicum. This is a cool split, with the gold standard for species status being found and demonstrated in an area of contact in nc Asia: sympatric breeding without introgression (see paper). With a closer look, there are vocal differences, consistent differences in tail shape (much deeper fork in Western) and rump pattern (dark uppertail coverts in Western, all white uppertail coverts in Siberian, although the most distal ones can have dark smudges or dark centers with pale edges in first-cycle birds). These give some fun new taxa to parse out: both species have reached the Americas on different sides of the continent. Watch for vagrants especially in late fall, including Westerns in East and Southeast Asia, watch for Siberians in western Asia, the Middle East, and Europe and in North America keep your eyes peeled for any white-rumped swallows at all, and photograph them when you find them!

  • Western House-Martin Delichon urbicum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Europe and w Asia east to central Mongolia; winters to Africa
  • Siberian House-Martin Delichon lagopodum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: central Mongolia east to East Asia; winters to SE Asia

Some house-martins will defy identification, especially those high overhead. Use these liberally!

and, if you are really lucky, this hybrid is available

  • Barn Swallow x Western House-Martin (hybrid) Hirundo rustica x Delichon urbicum [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: Although swallows are hyper-vagile and vagrants could turn up widely, most records separate out easily. It is only in Mongolia and southern Russia (where sympatric breeding was found, leading to the immediate and widespread adoption of this split) and in central China (where both could occur as migrants) that we aren’t able to easily assign records. Please take photos and document the birds carefully; until we understand the distributions better, records in this area will remain as a slash.

Western House-Martin Delichon urbicum © Sylvain Reyt / Macaulay Library

Siberian House-Martin Delichon lagopodum © Robert Hackel / Macaulay Library

Another new ID challenge will be house-martins. They overlap in breeding areas in central Mongolia and south-central Russia (near Lake Baikal) and can even occur together in the same colonies, but otherwise vagrancy is not well-known into the range of the other species…but maybe folks just haven’t been looking hard enough and in the right places. To pick out a Siberian House-Martin among Westerns, focus on the blunter, more squared-off tail and more extensive white rump patch. The pattern of the rump patch is diagnostic if seen well: Western always has an entirely dark row of the longest uppertail coverts (a band of black just above the start of the tail) while in Siberian this row of feather is white in adults and half white/half dark on immatures, since dark centered-feathers have extensive pale edging.

Sunda Bulbul Ixos virescens is split into Javan Bulbul Ixos virescens and Sumatran Bulbul Ixos sumatranus. Both are new island endemics for Indonesia.

  • Sumatran Bulbul Ixos sumatranus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Montane forests of w Sumatra
  • Javan Bulbul Ixos virescens [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Montane forests of Java

Banggai Golden-Bulbul Hypsipetes harterti is split from Sula Golden-Bulbul Hypsipetes longirostris. The endemic bird fauna of the Banggai Islands increases by one with this split. The golden bulbul complex was split into three back in 2012 and then a five-way split of Northern Golden-Bulbul (Alophoixus longirostris) in 2014 kicked it up to seven species; with this additional split we reach an eight-way split since 2011. A trip to see them all would be pretty amazing!

  • Banggai Golden-Bulbul Hypsipetes harterti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Banggai Islands (Peleng, Banggai, Labobo and Banda)
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul Hypsipetes longirostris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sula Islands (Taliabu, Mangole and Sanana)

Camiguin Bulbul Hypsipetes catarmanensis is split from Yellowish Bulbul Hypsipetes everetti. Camiguin Sur is a small island off a bigger island set among some medium-sized islands in an nation of islands, but it has a distinctive (well, somewhat darker) bulbul and one that has been long disrespected in eBird as a subspecies of Yellowish Bulbul. Welcome to eBird Hypsipetes catarmanensis–we see you (or we all hope to anyway)!

  • Yellowish Bulbul Hypsipetes everetti [map] [media] [my records]
    • Yellowish Bulbul (Sulu) Hypsipetes everetti haynaldi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulu Arch. (Bongao, Jolo, Sibutu, Tawitawi and Sanga Sanga)
    • Yellowish Bulbul (Yellowish) Hypsipetes everetti everetti
      • RANGE: Philippines (Dinagat, Mindanao, Panaon, Biliran, Siargao, Samar, and Leyte)
  • Camiguin Bulbul Hypsipetes catarmanensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Camiguin Sur (s Philippines)

Pale-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus davisoni is split from Stripe-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni. The pale eye color makes for a striking difference, while the duller and less distinct yellow head and throat streaking marks a more subtle difference. The two apparently occur in sympatry without much or any hybridization, which tends to be the gold standard for species status. Pale-eyed is not well known compared to its cousin, so please do add observations, photos, and media if you’ve been to Myanmar and seen one!

  • Pale-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus davisoni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Myanmar (delta of the Irrawaddy River)
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in SE Asia, from SE Myanmar to sw China (s Yunnan), s Indochina, and s Malay Peninsula

The two taxa may come in contact in Myanmar, and while they are readily distinguished with a good look, the slash may come in handy.

  • Pale-eyed/Stripe-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus davisoni/finlaysoni [map] [media] [my records]

Regional Record Change Logic: Within Myanmar, we have assumed that Streak-throated is involved for records from Tanintharyi (MM-05) and Shan (MM-17), as well as records from Kayin (MM-13) that are adjacent to the Thailand border. We have assumed records from sw. Mynamar from Bago (MM-02) and Manway (MM-04) west to pertain to Pale-eyed. The remaining records from Kayin (MM-13) and Mon (MM-15) are left as a slash, although observers have been encouraged to specify these records if they know which species was involved.

Pale-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus leucops is split from Flavescent Bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens. Yet again, the plumage differences of the Borneo subspecies prove significant and indicate Pale-faced Bulbul is its own new species.

  • Flavescent Bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in SE Asia (not on Borneo)
  • Pale-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus leucops [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Borneo (Mt. Kinabalu to Mt. Mulu and Mt. Murud)

Eye-ringed Parrotbill Suthora ricketti (sometimes known as Yunnan Parrotbill) is split from Brown-winged Parrotbill Sinosuthora brunnea. These two are distinctive in plumage and recent papers have supported the split. The name Eye-ringed Parrotbill may be unfamiliar. This taxon is sometimes known as Yunnan Parrotbill, but that name is not particularly appropriate since both species occur in Yunnan and since ricketti is also not restricted to Yunnan. The face pattern, and especially the eye-ringed look, is distinctive compared to brunnea, and the IOC World Bird List is also adopting this new name.

  • Eye-ringed Parrotbill Suthora ricketti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S China (s Sichuan and n Yunnan)
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill Suthora brunnea [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S China (n Yunnan from Mekong Valley to Tali region and Tali region south to Tengyueh)

Black-crowned Babbler Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus is split into Calabarzon Babbler Sterrhoptilus affinis and Visayan Babbler Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus. The Philippines continue to reveal even more endemism from island group to island group and this taxonomic update has been good to those lucky enough to have visited most of the major Philippine Islands!

  • Calabarzon Babbler Sterrhoptilus affinis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines (s Sierra Madre Mountains of s Luzon)
  • Visayan Babbler Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:N Philippines (Leyte and Samar) and Central Philippines (Bohol)

Morotai White-eye Zosterops dehaani is split from Cream-throated White-eye Zosterops atriceps. Cream-throated White-eye has been split before and this division further parses out the birds on Morotai as different. Another from this complex awaits formal description and should be reported separately in eBird: Obi White-eye. Zosterops are one of the most diverse genera on the planet and the fun ain’t over yet!

  • Morotai White-eye Zosterops dehaani [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Morotai
  • Cream-throated White-eye Zosterops atriceps [map] [media] [my records]
    • Cream-throated White-eye (Halmahera) Zosterops atriceps fuscifrons [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Halmahera
    • Cream-throated White-eye (Bacan) Zosterops atriceps atriceps [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Bacan

Bougainville White-eye Zosterops hamlini and Guadalcanal White-eye Zosterops oblitus are split from Gray-throated White-eye Zosterops rendovae. Note that Gray-throated White-eye is better known as Makira White-eye and will probably change to that next year. Each of these further reveals the single island endemism in the Solomons.

  • Bougainville White-eye Zosterops hamlini [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Solomon Is. (Bougainville)
  • Guadalcanal White-eye Zosterops oblitus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Solomon Is. (Guadalcanal)
  • Gray-throated White-eye Zosterops rendovae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Solomon Is. (Makira)

Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratum is split into Malayan Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum nigrocapitatum, Bornean Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratoides, and Javan Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratum. Subtle plumage differences, vocal differences, and genetic differences break along familiar lines of endemism here.

  • Malayan Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum nigrocapitatum [map] [media] [my records]
      • Malay Peninsula and Sumatra
  • Bornean Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratoides [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Borneo
  • Javan Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Java

Tanzanian Illadopsis Illadopsis distans is split from Pale-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis rufipennis. Illadopses (Illadopsises?) are secretive and dull, but fun birds of the undergrowth of African forests. Their subtle plumage accounts for these two, which are not especially closely related genetically, having been overlooked as conspecific for so long. But they were telling us all along: their voices are quite different! This and many other splits highlight the herculean efforts of recordists around the world who continue to contribute field recordings that aid our understanding of species limits, vocal variation, behavior, and much more. Keep it up!

  • Pale-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis rufipennis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:Sierra Leone to Ghana, S Nigeria to Angola, Kenya and nw Tanzania
  • Tanzanian Illadopsis Illadopsis distans [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Kenya to ne Tanzania, E Tanzania (Pugu Hills), and Zanzibar I.

Siberian Nuthatch Sitta arctica is split from Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea. Genetics and plumage demonstrate the distinctiveness of Siberian Nuthatch, but this is one of the most poorly known birds with almost no media currently in Macaulay Library. Someone please: travel safely, dress warmly, and go get some more!

  • Siberian Nuthatch Sitta arctica [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N-central Siberia to Anadyr River (e Russia)
  • Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea [map] [media] [my records]
    • Eurasian Nuthatch (Western) Sitta europaea [europaea Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Western Europe e to sw Iran and Transcaspia
    • Eurasian Nuthatch (White-bellied) Sitta europaea [asiatica Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: central and e Russia, including Sakhalin and Kamchatka
    • Eurasian Nuthatch (Buff-bellied) Sitta europaea [roseilia Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: widespread in E Asia
    • Eurasian Nuthatch (Chinese) Sitta europaea sinensis/formosana [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: c and e China, Taiwan

Regional Record Change Logic: Although widespread and probably not rare, this is one of the most poorly-represented birds in eBird. eBird’s White-bellied group looks similar and we had long-standing filter errors in Kamchatka and Sakhalin, which suggested that Siberian occurred there (there is no evidence that it does). We only changed records in Sakha and Chukotsk.

Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum anthonyi is split from Flame-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum anthonyi. Flowerpeckers are excited and electric little bundles of activity and color and the world needs more. Here we trade one in for two new ones in the Philippines.

  • Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum anthonyi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Philippines (montane forests of Luzon)
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum kampalili [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Philippines (montane forests of Mindanao)

Cambodian Flowerpecker Dicaeum cambodianum, Fire-throated Flowerpecker Dicaeum luzoniense, and Sumatran Flowerpecker Dicaeum beccarii are split from Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus. And here is an even better flowerpecker trade: give one, get four! The plumages of males are distinctive, but the ranges of these taxa don’t overlap, so field ID is no problem.

  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-breasted) Dicaeum ignipectus ignipectus/dolichorhynchum
      • RANGE: Widespread from the Himalayas to s China through SE Asia
    • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Taiwan) Dicaeum ignipectus formosum
      • RANGE: Taiwan
  • Cambodian Flowerpecker Dicaeum cambodianum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mts. of e Thailand (incl. Khao Yai NP) and Cambodia
  • Fire-throated Flowerpecker Dicaeum luzoniense [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines
  • Sumatran Flowerpecker Dicaeum beccarii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sumatra

Pink-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum keiense is split from Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum. The population on the Aru Islands is an interesting case as it may belong with Mistletoebird or represent its own species; this is under study and could change as soon as next year’s update. We badly need more photos and audio recordings, which could help solve this little mystery. Regardless, the strikingly different plumage of the Pink-breasted Flowerpecker merits recognition as a species distinct from Australia’s one, widespread flowerpecker (Red-capped is the other, but is a Papuan species that sneaks on to a couple Torres Strait islands and thus onto the Ozzie list).

  • Pink-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum keiense [map] [media] [my records]
    • Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Pink-breasted) Dicaeum keiense keiense/fulgidum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Southern Wallacea (Watubela, Tayandu and Kai islands) and Tanimbar Is. (Yamdena, Larat and Lutu)
    • Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Aru) Dicaeum keiense ignicolle [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Aru Islands
  • Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: widespread in Australia

Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis is split into eight (!!) species, as follows: Ornate Sunbird Cinnyris ornatus, Tukangbesi Sunbird Cinnyris infrenatus, Sahul Sunbird Cinnyris frenatus, Palawan Sunbird Cinnyris aurora, South Moluccan Sunbird Cinnyris clementiae, Flores Sea Sunbird Cinnyris teysmanni, Mamberamo Sunbird Cinnyris idenburgi, and Garden Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis. This is the biggest split in this year’s update and highlights the importance of integrative taxonomy that assesses plumage, vocalizations, and genetics in conjunction with biogeography.

Ornate Sunbird is a widespread and common bird across SE Asia and is probably the most familiar representative, with an olive back, extensive iridescent bluish throat, and yellow belly. Garden Sunbird of the Philippines looks very similar, but differs in vocalizations and genetics support its uniqueness. Lying between these populations is Palawan Sunbird, which is similar but has a bold orangeish band below the throat that sets it apart. Farther east, Sahul Sunbird is also similar to Ornate and Garden, but brihgter and shows a narrow yellow moustachial stripe above the blue throat that is distinctive and is consistent across a fairly broad range. Back to the west, off s Sulawesi, the Tukangbesi Sunbird is similar to Ornate but has a very brownish (not olive back) and its uniqueness is also supported genetically. These sunbirds get really different from one another in eastern Indonesia, where Flores Sea Sunbird and South Moluccan Sunbird are both overall dark, including a blackish belly, but differ in back color with Flores Sea Sunbird having a brownish back and South Moluccan having a brighter olive-green back. Mamberamo Sunbird (sometimes known as Rand’s Sunbird) is extremely poorly known, occurring in swampy second growth in northern New Guinea; it has no photos yet in Macaulay Library and potentially no eBird records.

Finding all these species, including those on smaller remote islands and archipelagos, should keep any Southeast Asian-Indonesian bird lister busy for a decade or so. Get photos and audio and submit it with your eBird list!

  • Ornate Sunbird Cinnyris ornatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Ornate Sunbird (Ornate) Cinnyris ornatus [ornatus Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in SE Asia
    • Ornate Sunbird (Cream-bellied) Cinnyris ornatus rhizophorae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S China (s Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan) and n Vietnam
  • Tukangbesi Sunbird Cinnyris infrenatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tukangbesi Is. (off Sulawesi)
  • Sahul Sunbird Cinnyris frenatus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulawesi, Talaud, Salayar and adjacent smaller islands, Banggai Is. and Sula Is., N Moluccas, Aru and w Papuan is., New Guinea and ne Queensland, Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Is.
  • Garden Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines
  • Palawan Sunbird Cinnyris aurora [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Agutaya, Balabac, Busuanga, Cagayancillo, Culion, Cuyo, Palawan
  • South Moluccan Sunbird Cinnyris clementiae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:Buru I. (s Moluccas), S Moluccas (Seram, Ambon and adjacent islands), Kai Is. (Kai Kecil, Kai Besar, Ohimas and Add)
  • Flores Sea Sunbird Cinnyris teysmanni [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tanahjampea, Kalao, Bonerate, Kalaotoa and Madu islands
  • Mamberamo Sunbird Cinnyris idenburgi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Northwest New Guinea and Sepik Ramu
Despite their drastically different plumage, with this year’s update we regret to say that the four birds above are being lumped. JUST KIDDING! In actuality, they had been lumped up until this year, and are finally being split. This seems crazy in retrospect given how different these birds look, from the all dark Flores Sea Sunbird to the striking face pattern differences between Sahul and Ornate Sunbirds. This split is this year’s biggest single contribution, adding seven species to the global total and better reflecting the amazing centers of endemism in Wallacea.

Palawan Fairy-bluebird Irena tweeddalii is split from Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella. The new Palawan endemic fairy-bluebird is much richer turquoise-blue above vs. purplish blue and has shorter uppertail coverts, and these plumage differences are supported by significant genetic differentiation and apparent vocal differences. This split increases the size of the family Irenidae by 50%!

  • Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Southeast Asia and in sw India
  • Palawan Fairy-bluebird Irena tweeddalii [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Palawan

Javan Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis and Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis moluccensis are split from Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis. The differences are subtle (less blue on wings and less yellow on head of Javan) but supported by genetic evidence–and Java often hosts endemic species. This one is unfortunately severely imperiled by the cagebird trade and is treated as a Sensitive Species in eBird.

  • Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis moluccensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Southeast Asia
  • Javan Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Java (now very rare)

The two do not normally overlap in range, but the rampant illegal cagebird trade raises the possibility that either taxon might occur in the range of the other or that escapees may occur outside the range of either species and would thus need careful identification.

Azores Chaffinch Fringilla moreletti, Madeira Chaffinch Fringilla maderensis, Canary Islands Chaffinch Fringilla canariensis, and African Chaffinch Fringilla spodiogenys are split from Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. A detailed and elegant paper (Recuerda et al. 2021) looked at the genetics and morphology across the Fringilla coelebs complex and determined that five species should be recognized. After review of the evidence, the WGAC committee agreed, granting three new endemics for Europe and adding to the small number of unique species for Madeira and the Azores. While the three island taxa are generally resident and unlikely to occur as vagrants, potential movements of African Chaffinch raise interesting questions: does it occur as a vagrant in Europe and if so, how frequently? Some immature male Common Chaffinches can be greenish on the back and can appear similar, so identification criteria are still being worked out. This should create some headaches–hopefully fun headaches–for eBird reviewers and Bird Records Committees in the coming years.

  • Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in western Eurasia
  • Azores Chaffinch Fringilla moreletti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Azores
  • Madeira Chaffinch Fringilla maderensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Madeira
  • Canary Islands Chaffinch Fringilla canariensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Canary Islands Chaffinch (Canary Is.) Fringilla canariensis canariensis/ombriosa [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Gomera, Tenerife, and Hierro
    • Canary Islands Chaffinch (La Palma) Fringilla canariensis palmae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Canary Islands: La Palma
  • African Chaffinch Fringilla spodiogenys [map] [media] [my records]
    • African Chaffinch (Tunisian) Fringilla spodiogenys spodiogenys/harterti [map] [media] [my records]
    • African Chaffinch (African) Fringilla spodiogenys africana [map] [media] [my records]

Some African Chaffinches found in continental Europe present a mystery. Are these vagrants or escapees? Or can some plumages of Common Chaffinch approach the greenish back of African Chaffinch? Either way, these birds and the presence of migrant Common Chaffinches during winter within the range of African Chaffinch necessitate a slash option, so use it when needed! Hybrids are also known, but rare.

Antillean Euphonia Chlorophonia musica is split into Lesser Antillean Euphonia Chlorophonia flavifrons, Puerto Rican Euphonia Chlorophonia sclateri, and Hispaniolan Euphonia Chlorophonia musica. It is surprising that these have been lumped for so long, because the plumages are highly distinctive (check out the media galleries below) and the species all hail from islands with high degrees of regional endemism. This change follows a decision by AOS-NACC; read more in their proposal and discussion.

  • Hispaniolan Euphonia Chlorophonia musica [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Hispaniola
  • Puerto Rican Euphonia Chlorophonia sclateri [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Puerto Rico
  • Lesser Antillean Euphonia Chlorophonia flavifrons [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Lesser Antilles, from at least St. Kitts to Grenada

Yellow-lored Tanager Chlorothraupis frenata is split from Carmiol’s Tanager Chlorothraupis carmioli. The distinctive face pattern and vocalizations of Yellow-lored Tanager, combined with new genetic information, made for a clear split in this case. There is a significant range gap, with Carmiol’s occurring in middle America (and barely sneaking into nw. Colombia) and Yellow-lored being a bird of the Amazonian slope of the Andes from Colombia south to Bolivia.

  • Carmiol’s Tanager Chlorothraupis carmioli [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in Tropical Middle America s. to nw. Colombia
  • Yellow-lored Tanager Chlorothraupis frenata [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tropical s Colombia to nw Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba)

Ecuadorian Seedeater Amaurospiza aequatorialis is split from Blue Seedeater Amaurospiza concolor. A detailed proposal to AOS-SACC justified this split, but did not recommend a further split of relicta.

  • Blue Seedeater Amaurospiza concolor [map] [media] [my records]
    • Blue Seedeater (Slate-blue) Amaurospiza concolor relicta [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mts. of s Mexico (s Jalisco to Guerrero, Morelos and Oaxaca)
    • Blue Seedeater (Blue) Amaurospiza concolor concolor [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mts. of s Mexico (Chiapas) to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama
  • Ecuadorian Seedeater Amaurospiza aequatorialis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mountains of sw Colombia (Nariño) to n Peru (Cajamarca)

White-bellied Tanager Tangara brasiliensis is split from Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana. Striking plumage differences (white vs,. yellow belly, different color of blue) uphold White-bellied Tanager as a distinct species. As is often the case, distinctive taxa from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil are increasingly proving to be distinct species.

  • Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Widespread in tropical South America (except se Brazil)
  • White-bellied Tanager Tangara brasiliensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Coastal se Brazil (s Bahia to Rio de Janeiro)

Grand Cayman Bullfinch Melopyrrha taylori is split from Cuban Bullfinch Melopyrrha nigra. The two species are quite similar, but differ subtly in bill depth and plumage color: male Cuban Bullfinches are more glossy-black than male Grand Cayman Bullfinches, and female Cubans are more dull black vs. slaty gray. This change follows the split adopted by the AOS-NACC and reflects continued attention to the previously underappreciated diversity of species on the Caribbean. Grand Cayman Bullfinch becomes the first endemic for those islands and the split adds yet another endemic for Cuba.

Sulawesi Pitta Erythropitta celebensis © Marco Valentini / Macaulay Library 

Sulawesi Pitta is a striking and beautiful bird among a family of striking and beautiful birds. Within the past decade the Red-bellied Pitta complex was divided into 16 species; this year we gain one species from an additional split but lose four more from lumps as the species limits within this diverse, but similar, group continue to be refined.



In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

Little Green Woodpecker Campethera maculosa and Green-backed Woodpecker Campethera cailliautii are lumped as Green-backed Woodpecker Campethera maculosa. These two taxa have gone back-and-forth between splits and lumps, but new genetics support their merger as the best treatment.

  • Green-backed Woodpecker Campethera maculosa [map] [media] [my records]
    • Green-backed Woodpecker (Little Green) Campethera maculosa maculosa [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Senegal and Guinea-Bissau to central Ghana and Liberia
    • Green-backed Woodpecker (Plain-backed) Campethera maculosa permista [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: e Ghana e to extreme sw South Sudan and sw Uganda, s to n Angola and s Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Green-backed Woodpecker (Spot-backed) Campethera maculosa [cailliautii Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: SW Ethiopia and s Somalia to central Tanzania, extreme e Zimbabwe and Mozambique

Scale-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus is lumped in to Waved Woodpecker Celeus undatus. Minor vocal and plumage differences have led to a lump in these two species.

  • Waved Woodpecker Celeus undatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Waved Woodpecker (Scale-breasted) Celeus undatus [grammicus Group] [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: SE Colombia and s Venezuela to tropical e Ecuador and e Peru, W Amazonian Brazil and n and n Bolivia
    • Waved Woodpecker (Waved) Celeus undatus [undatus Group] [map] [media] [my records]
        • RANGE: E Venezuela to the Guianas and ne Brazil to NE Brazil s of the Amazon (Pará east to Rio Tocantins)

Siau Pitta Erythropitta palliceps and Sangihe Pitta Erythropitta caeruleitorques are lumped in to Sulawesi Pitta Erythropitta celebensis. This is the first recalibration of the large split of Red-bellied Pitta Erythropitta erythrogaster from a few years ago. Differences in these species are subtle and do not warrant species rank, but they are retains as subspecies groups.

  • Sulawesi Pitta Erythropitta celebensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Sulawesi Pitta (Sulawesi) Erythropitta celebensis celebensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sulawesi, Manterawu I. and Togian Islands
    • Sulawesi Pitta (Sangihe) Erythropitta celebensis caeruleitorques [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sangihe I. (ne of Sulawesi)
    • Sulawesi Pitta (Siau) Erythropitta celebensis palliceps [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Siau and Tahulandang islands (Celebes Sea)

New Britain Pitta Erythropitta gazellae, Tabar Pitta Erythropitta splendida and New Ireland Pitta Erythropitta novaehibernicae are lumped as Bismarck Pitta Erythropitta novaehibernicae. This is the second recalibration of the large split of Red-bellied Pitta Erythropitta erythrogaster from a few years ago. Differences in these species are subtle and do not warrant species rank, but they are retains as subspecies groups.

  • Bismarck Pitta Erythropitta novaehibernicae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Bismarck Pitta (New Ireland) Erythropitta novaehibernicae novaehibernicae/extima [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE:New Hanover and New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago)
    • Bismarck Pitta (Tabar) Erythropitta novaehibernicae splendida [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Tabar I. (e of New Ireland)
    • Bismarck Pitta (New Britain) Erythropitta novaehibernicae gazellae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: S Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain and adjacent islands)

Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis is lumped in to Serra Antwren Formicivora serrana. Recent genetics show that this historical split should not be continued.

  • Serra Antwren Formicivora serrana [map] [media] [my records]
    • Serra Antwren (Serra) Formicivora serrana serrana/interposita [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mts. of se Brazil (e Minas Gerais and adj. Espírito Santo) and SE Brazil (nw Rio de Janeiro and adjacent se Minas Gerais)
    • Serra Antwren (Restinga) Formicivora serrana littoralis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Coastal se Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) and adjacent offshore islands

Puna Canastero Asthenes sclateri is lumped in to Streak-backed Canastero Asthenes wyatti. Minor differences in plumage and the lack of clear vocal differences have resulted in a loss of faith in this split, which had been fairly widely adopted up to this point (and remains upheld by AOS-SACC).

  • Streak-backed Canastero Asthenes wyatti [map] [media] [my records]
    • Streak-backed Canastero (Streak-backed) Asthenes wyatti [wyatti Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Mountains of n Colombia, nw Venezuela, c and s Ecuador, and Peru (Junín, Cuzco, Huancavelica and Puno)
    • Streak-backed Canastero (Puna) Asthenes wyatti [sclateri Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Andes of extreme se Peru (Puno) and w Bolivia (La Paz) to mountains of c Argentina (Sierra de San Luis)

Cordilleran Flycatcher Empidonax occidentalis and Pacific-slope Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis are lumped as Western Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis. Back in 1989, vocal differences within Western Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis led to this split, which has frustrated birders ever since. We already had two essentially identical, overlapping Empidonax–Willow and Alder–but at least those had consistent differences in songs and calls. But the new Pacific-slope and Cordilleran Flycatchers were way worse: there were no visual characters at all, the diagnostic vocalizations were subtle and variable, and some vocalizations weren’t even diagnostic. Vagrant birds sometimes vocalized, but some had to be confirmed through genetic samples from the bird’s feces: once you are chasing after a bird hoping it poops, perhaps this has all gone too far? Anyway, as Michael Retter wrote in the ABA redux of this lump (and other AOS changes), “Finally, our long continental nightmare is over!”. A critical re-analysis of vocal and genetic variation in the complex indicated broad introgression and suggests that these forms are better re-lumped as Western Flycatcher.

Your conservative reports of Pacific-slope/Cordilleran Flycatchers will now return to species-level entries: a nice reward for your honesty. For those that carefully worked out the vocalizations–or gathered some whitewash samples for genetic analyses–we will retain the subspecies groups for accurate reporting. But stay tuned, there are indications that the southern Mexico birds are the most unique of all, so maybe expect that subspecies group to appear in the future…if does not end up being slit as a full species!

Western Flycatcher Empidonax difficilis [map] [media] [my records]

    • Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope) Empidonax difficilis [difficilis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: W North America (se Alaska to n Baja), Channel Islands off s California, and s. Baja California Sur; northerly populations winter to s Mexico
    • Western Flycatcher (Cordilleran) Empidonax difficilis occidentalis/hellmayri [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Woodlands of sw Canada to central Mexico; northerly populations winter to s Mexico

In the process of documenting the intermediate vocalizations, numerous hybrids were reported. These will remain available as an intergrade, although we stress that this option is nearly unidentifiable in the field and should be very rarely used.

  • Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope x Cordilleran Flycatcher) Empidonax difficilis difficilis x hellmayri [map] [media] [my records]

Recent papers advocated for some splits in drongos that had some genetic support but created several species pairs that were nearly unidentifiable in the field. A reassessment of the evidence for those splits has resulted in a reversal, so Western Square-tailed Drongo, Glossy-backed Drongo, and Fanti Drongo are all lost. This should simplify the field identification substantially, although the all-black drongos of Africa still present plenty of challenges:

Western Square-tailed Drongo Dicrurus occidentalis is lumped in to Sharpe’s Drongo Dicrurus sharpei

  • Sharpe’s Drongo Dicrurus sharpei [map] [media] [my records]
    • Sharpe’s Drongo (Western) Dicrurus sharpei occidentalis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Senegal to Nigeria (west of the Niger River)
    • Sharpe’s Drongo (Eastern) Dicrurus sharpei sharpei [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: central Africa, from Nigeria (east of the Niger River, south of the Benue River) east to Uganda, South Sudan, and western Kenya, and south to northwestern Angola and southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

In some parts of the range, this option should still be used:

Glossy-backed Drongo Dicrurus divaricatus is lumped in to Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis

  • Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis Group) Dicrurus adsimilis [adsimilis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia to e and s South Africa
    • Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed) Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus/lugubris [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: sw Mauritania s to Guinea, e to se Niger and ne Nigeria (Lake Chad), sw Chad (Lake Chad) east to Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, s to n Democratic Republic of the Congo, n Uganda, and n Kenya
    • Fork-tailed Drongo (Clancey’s) Dicrurus adsimilis apivorus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: se Gabon and adjacent Republic of the Congo, s Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, n and w Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, and n South Africa (n Northern Cape to Limpopo)

Fanti Drongo Dicrurus atactus is lumped in to Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus

  • Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Fanti) Dicrurus modestus atactus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Sierra Leone and s Guinea east to sw Nigeria
    • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Principe) Dicrurus modestus modestus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Príncipe I. (Gulf of Guinea)
    • Velvet-mantled Drongo (coracinus) Dicrurus modestus coracinus [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Bioko and s Nigeria e to sw Central African Republic, extreme sw South Sudan, and w Kenya, s to Gabon, central Democratic Republic of the Congo, and nw Angola

Luzon Sunbird Aethopyga jefferyi and Bohol Sunbird Aethopyga decorosa are lumped in to Metallic-winged Sunbird Aethopyga pulcherrima. Although genetic information shows some very deep mitochondrial DNA splits in these three taxa, the lack of consistent plumage or vocal differences make it hard to grant them species status.

  • Metallic-winged Sunbird Aethopyga pulcherrima [map] [media] [my records]
    • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Luzon) Aethopyga pulcherrima jefferyi [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: N Philippines (Luzon)
    • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Bohol) Aethopyga pulcherrima decorosa [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Philippines (Bohol)
    • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Southern) Aethopyga pulcherrima pulcherrima [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Basilan, Dinagat, Siargo, Biliran, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao

Vincent’s Bunting Emberiza vincenti is lumped in to Cape Bunting Emberiza capensis. Minor differences did not merit species rank, but they may be enough to still track the distribution of the two forms.

  • Cape Bunting Emberiza capensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Cape Bunting (Cape) Emberiza capensis [capensis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: SW Angola and n Namibia to South Africa
    • Cape Bunting (Vincent’s) Emberiza capensis vincenti [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Central Malawi to adjacent n Mozambique and e Zambia

Caqueta SeedeaterSporophila murallae is lumped in to Wing-barred Seedeater Sporophila americana. A detailed proposal to AOS-SACC lays out the arguments to treat these two as the same species.

  • Wing-barred Seedeater Sporophila americana [map] [media] [my records]
    • Wing-barred Seedeater (Wing-barred) Sporophila americana americana/dispar [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: NE Venezuela to Guianas, ne Brazil; Tobago and Chacachacare I. and W Amazonian Brazil
    • Wing-barred Seedeater (Caqueta) Sporophila americana murallae [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: SE Colombia to e Brazil, e Ecuador and ne Peru

Wangi-Wangi White-eye Zosterops paruhbesar © Simon Mitchell / Macaulay Library

White-eye is one of three newly-described species recognized with this year’s update. To see it, birders will need to travel to a single small island in the Tukangbesi Archipelago off the se. tip of Sulawesi.



Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

Principe Scops-Owl Otus bikegila is recognized as a new species and was previously shown in eBird as Pincipe Scops-Owl (undescribed species). It is not well known and not often observed, but has a distinctive voice and plumage. The scientific description that gave the bird its name is open access.

  • Principe Scops-Owl Otus bikegila [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Príncipe Island (Gulf of Guinea)

Wangi-wangi White-eye Zosterops paruhbesar. Once of the world’s most diverse genera of birds gets a bit more diverse with the description of this new species from just a tiny island off the se. tip of Sulawesi.

  • Wangi-wangi White-eye Zosterops paruhbesar [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: Wangi-wangi, Tukangbesi Islands, off southeastern Sulawesi

Ibera Seedeater Sporophila iberaensis has been a long time coming! Check out the profile in our taxonomy announcement story.

  • Ibera Seedeater Sporophila iberaensis [map] [media] [my records]
      • RANGE: breeds in northern Argentina (Iberá wetlands of Corrientes), also reported Paraguay and southern Brazil


Occasionally a subspecies, or portion of an existing species, will be moved from one species to another. These have the same effects as splits on birders’ lists, requiring data to be changed to match the taxonomic revision. These are quite confusing though, since name changes often don’t result–and when they do–they seem to come “out of nowhere”. Thankfully, subspecies shuffles are rare. We have three such changes for 2023.

Subspecies remigialis is known from just one specimen taken on Kai Besar in Indonesia and has traditionally been placed in Southern Boobook Ninox boobook, but recent observations have demonstrated that it is vocally much closer to Barking Owl Ninox connivens than to Southern Boobook. The superlative Eaton et al. (2021) field guide for Indonesia recommended this revised treatment and we follow it this year, resulting in a minor change to which species occurs on this rarely-visited island (just one eBird record so far).

Not exactly a subspecies shuffle, but an important modification to a species’s range happened with Choco Screech-Owl Megascops centralis. This species was only recently recognized as distinct, being previously lumped with Middle American Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae and Foothill Screech-Owl Megascops roraimae under the now-continued name, Vermiculated Screech-Owl. Birds that sound unlike Middle American and more like Choco Screech in sw. Costa Rica had been presumed to pertain to that species, but as more recordings and observations have become available, the interesting notion that this is an undescribed taxon–likely an undescribed species–has begun to emerge. Take a listed to their calls and decide for yourself: Choco vs. Puntarenas? Are these the same species or a different species (keep in mind that vocalizations, even those that differ somewhat subtly, can be really important in species delimitations of nightbirds…it isn’t too surprising that shiny and colorful plumage isn’t how they signal to one another, right?

With this change, we have shifted all Costa Rica records of Choco Screech or Puntarenas Screech and we hope further research will clarify the correct classification of these bird sin the near future. For those that have seen or heard this bird, your Life List won’t reflect a +1 at this time, but you can always access your records at the link below (or at the bottom of any list under “Other taxa”. And if it gets upgrades to a fully-recognized species in the future, then this bird “in the bank” will move up to a fully species and your lists will go up accordingly. We encourage photos and video from anyone lucky enough to track this bird down!

Regional Record Change Logic: All costa Rica records of Choco Screech-Owl are moved to Puntarenas Screech-Owl (undescribed form)

Sumatran Drongo (Mentawai) Dicrurus sumatranus viridensis was endemic to an island archipelago (Mentawai) off the west side of Sumatra and this year we move this subspecies to Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentotus instead of retaining it within Sumatran Drongo. This makes Sumatran Drongo monotypic and adds the 8th subspecies group for Hair-crested Drongo. This results in a minor change in range for both species.

The Darwin’s Finch subspecies darwini was previously associated with Genovesa Cactus-Finch Geospiza propinqua but this treatment did not align well with other checklists. After looking into what is known about this very poorly known taxon, the WGAC agreed on treating it as a subspecies of Large Ground-Finch Geospiza magnirostris as Geospiza magnirostris darwini. Essentially no one has seen this bird and questions remain about whether it is extant.


Revisions to eBird subspecies groups, and occasionally other taxa (like spuhs or slashes), can happen in our taxonomic update as well. This effectively changes the definition for these taxa and also changes how you should use them in reporting. To review your records of any of the subspecies groups below, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

Oriental Honey-buzzard (Sunda) Pernis ptilorhynchus [ptilorhynchus Group] is split from our Oriental Honey-buzzard (Indomalayan), which has a sciname change to Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis/philippensis that reflects a more restricted set of more northerly taxa. Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis is the subspecies from South Asia (India and Sri Lanka) to Myanmar and sw China, while philippensis occurs in the North and East Philippines. The other group, Oriental Honey-buzzard (Sunda), thus includes the three remaining subspecies: palawanensis from Palawan and Calauit (s Philippines), torquatus from Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo, and the nominate form from Java.

  • Oriental Honey-buzzard (Indomalayan) Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis/philippensis
    • Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis
      • RANGE: India and Sri Lanka through sw China and SE Asia except Malayan Peninsula
    • Pernis ptilorhynchus philippensis
      • RANGE: N and e Philippine Islands
  • Oriental Honey-buzzard (Sunda) Pernis ptilorhynchus [ptilorhynchus Group] 
    • Pernis ptilorhynchus palawanensis
      • RANGE: S Philippines (Palawan and Calauit)
    • Pernis ptilorhynchus torquatus
      • RANGE: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo
    • Pernis ptilorhynchus ptilorhynchus
      • RANGE: Java

eBird/Clements failed to recognize a distinctive subspecies of Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus from the island of Simeulue, off w. Sumtra, Indonesia, until this year. With this year’s update Dicrurus leucophaeus celaenus is recognized as distinct from Dicrurus leucophaeus periophthalmicus, and it is placed in the Ashy Drongo (Sooty) Dicrurus leucophaeus [leucophaeus Group] . This subspecies is overall darkish and unlike the paler gray and white-faced periophthalmicus Group. This results in a very minor change to the range of the Ashy Drongo (Sumatran) Dicrurus leucophaeus [periophthalmicus Group]; note that this group was previously called Ashy Drongo (Island White-faced) but has had an English name change this year.

The result is a massive list of subspecies group options for this species. Hmmm, interesting, many of these look completely dissimilar from one another and live on a wide range of islands known for high-levels of endemism. Could it, maybe, be that more than one species is involved?

Anyway, try to use the subspecies groups when appropriate but try to document them when you see them with photos and audio (and written descriptions when you can’t get photos or audio).

    • Ashy Drongo (Blackish) Dicrurus leucophaeus [longicaudatus Group]
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus RANGE: E Afghanistan to Sikkim; > to s India and Sri Lanka
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus hopwoodi RANGE: E Himalayas to Myanmar and s China; > to Indochina
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus nigrescens RANGE: Mangrove forests of extreme s Myanmar, s Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia
    • Ashy Drongo (Sooty) Dicrurus leucophaeus [leucophaeus Group]
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus mouhoti RANGE: S Myanmar and n Thailand; > to Indochina
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus celaenus RANGE: Simeulue I. (off nw Sumatra)
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus bondi RANGE: w and e Thailand, s Laos, Cambodia, and s Vietnam
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus leucophaeus RANGE: Java, Bali, Lombok, Palawan, Calamian and Balabac islands
    • Ashy Drongo (White-cheeked) Dicrurus leucophaeus leucogenis
        • RANGE: Manchuria and e China; > to Indochina
    • Ashy Drongo (White-lored) Dicrurus leucophaeus salangensis
        • RANGE: SE China; > Indochina
    • Ashy Drongo (Hainan) Dicrurus leucophaeus innexus 
        • RANGE: Hainan (s China)
    • Ashy Drongo (Sumatran) Dicrurus leucophaeus [periophthalmicus Group]
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus periophthalmicus RANGE: Mentawi Islands (off wc Sumatra)
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus siberu RANGE: Siberut I. (off wc Sumatra)
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus batakensis RANGE: N Sumatra
      • Dicrurus leucophaeus phaedrus RANGE: S Sumatra
    • Ashy Drongo (Bornean) Dicrurus leucophaeus stigmatops
        • RANGE: Mountains of n Borneo

And since we had a former “Chinese White-faced” group that included three subspecies groups above, we retain that option which is now renamed. This is the most grayish (ashy) color within the species complex, so they are readily recognized even at a distance when the details of face pattern cannot be seen. And since leucogenis and salangensis are highly migratory, these are worth parsing out when you can. This joins our other group that clumps the two Blackish/Sooty types together as a recognizable group even when finer subdivisions are not possible.

    • Ashy Drongo (Blackish/Sooty) Dicrurus leucophaeus [longicaudatus Group/leucophaeus Group]
    • Ashy Drongo (Hainan/White-cheeked/White-lored) Dicrurus leucophaeus innexus/leucogenis/salangensis

We strongly encourage birders to review your past reports of Ashy Drongo and use the subspecies, when they are known or when you have photos that can be filed under a specific taxon. Review your Ashy Drongos here: [my records]


eBird’s taxonomy has up until now had this form: Green Barbet (Malawi) Stactolaema olivacea belcheri/rungweensis, but belcheri and rungweensis are each distinctive. The result is that all five subspecies of Green Barbet are now treated as monotypic subspecies groups:

    • Green Barbet (Green) Cryptolybia olivacea olivacea
      • RANGE: SE Kenya and ne Tanzania
    • Green Barbet (Howell’s) Cryptolybia olivacea howelli
      • RANGE: S Cent. Tanzania (Udzungwe and Mahenge mountains)
    • Green Barbet (Woodward’s) Cryptolybia olivacea woodwardi
      • RANGE: SE Tanzania (Rondo Plateau) and Zululand (Ngoye Forest)
    • Green Barbet (Misuku Hills) Cryptolybia olivacea rungweensis
      • RANGE: S Highlands of sw Tanzania to n Malawi
    • Green Barbet (Mt. Thyolo) Cryptolybia olivacea belcheri
      • RANGE: S Malawi (Mt. Thyolo) and n Mozambique (Mt. Namuli)

Gray Parrot (Principe) Psittacus erithacus princeps was previously associated with Timneh Parrot, but with the split of that taxon, it seems that Gray Parrots on Principe are actually more related to Gray Parrot instead. We add it as a unique group under Gray Parrot this year. The situation is confusing since there may have been escapees of nominate erithacus in the region as well. This is still under study.

  • Timneh Parrot Psittacus timneh
      • RANGE: S Guinea to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali and w Ivory Coast
  • Gray Parrot Psittacus erithacus
    • Gray Parrot (Gray) Psittacus erithacus erithacus
      • RANGE: Ivory Coast to Kenya, Tanzania, Príncipe, São Tomé and Bioko
    • Gray Parrot (Principe) Psittacus erithacus princeps
      • RANGE: Príncipe I. (Gulf of Guinea)

Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus previously had two groups: an island endemic for San Andrés and a widespread one to cover everything else. The great bird thinker Steve Howell has recently highlighted differences between the northern and southern subspecies groups, which are well-separated by geography. Surely due to rampant deforestation and urbanization, the northern ones have been expanding southwards and the southern ones expanding northwards. Will they interbreed when they make contact (maybe in Nicaragua)? If they don’t, we’ll surely have to split them in the coming years!

Here are our subspecies groups now:

    • Tropical Mockingbird (Mayan) Mimus gilvus gracilis/leucophaeus
      • Mimus gilvus gracilis RANGE: southern Mexico (eastern Oaxaca) to Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and western Nicaragua
      • Mimus gilvus leucophaeus RANGE: Humid tropical se Mexico, Cozumel I., Isla Mujeres and Belize
    • Tropical Mockingbird (Southern) Mimus gilvus [gilvus Group]
      • Mimus gilvus antillarum RANGE: Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines and Grenada
      • Mimus gilvus tobagensis RANGE: Trinidad and Tobago
      • Mimus gilvus rostratus RANGE: Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, and adjacent islands off the north coast of Venezuela
      • Mimus gilvus tolimensis RANGE: southern Nicaragua south to western Ecuador and central Colombia; range has expanded both north and south out of Colombia since the 1990s
      • Mimus gilvus melanopterus RANGE: Coastal n Colombia to Venezuela, Guyana and extreme n Brazil
      • Mimus gilvus gilvus RANGE: French Guiana and Suriname
      • Mimus gilvus antelius RANGE: Coastal e Brazil (Pará to Rio de Janeiro)
    • Tropical Mockingbird (San Andres) Mimus gilvus magnirostris
      • RANGE: Isla San Andrés (w Caribbean Sea)

Subspecies groups in Common Grackle have undergone a revision that deserves some explanation. A recent paper investigating the genetics and gene flow in Common Grackle has highlighted the fact that it is the form from Florida and the Southeast, Q. q. quiscula, that is most pure genetically. This form had previously been lumped in the eBird taxonomy with Quiscalus quiscula stonei, but that form is heavily introgressed with “Bronzed” Grackle Quiscalus quiscula versicolor which is most widespread, occurring from New England north to Canada and west to the Rocky Mts.

Since there is a long history of separating “Purple” from “Bronzed” (e.g., in the Mid-Atlantic) we retain that distinction as an option, but we also encourage users to pay attention to the distinctive features of Florida Grackle and to be very very cautious and aware of the broad introgression between stonei and versicolor. We encourage very careful reporting, focused mostly on extreme individuals that are clearly identifiable. Report at the species level for birds that seem likely introgressed. The Sibley Guides webpage also has some great information on the field characters of these subspecies with plenty of cautionary notes.

  • Common Grackle (Florida/Purple) Quiscalus quiscula quiscula/stonei
    • Common Grackle (Purple) Quiscalus quiscula stonei
      • RANGE: E US (sw Conn. to Alabama and n Georgia); > to Florida
    • Common Grackle (Florida) Quiscalus quiscula quiscula
      • RANGE: SE US (s Louisiana to e South Carolina and Florida Keys)
  • Common Grackle (Bronzed) Quiscalus quiscula versicolor 
      • RANGE: S and se Canada e of Rocky Mts. to c and ne US; > to s US


Below are the new subspecies groups that are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level.

We have two cool set revisions subspecies groups (overlooked until now, due in part to their complexity) to highlight at the top this year:

First, the familiar Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura has some distinctive subspecies groups already: northern birds have sort of medium pink heads and some variability in the warty protuberances on the face. They are migratory and move from Canada and the US south to Central and South America. Within the tropics, there is a large, Pacific form with vibrant pink heads, large size, and dark plumage, that jumps out as quite distinctive. And then there are birds with silvery nape collars on the bare skin of the head, which had long been presumed to pertain to a single “Tropical” form. But astute birders have been studying the plumage, warty protuberances, and exact coloration of the head and it now appears that the birds formerly lumped as “Tropical” represent two taxa: ruficollis (described from Brazil) and a new taxon, without a name, that is prevalent in wetter areas on the west slope of the Andes from Peru to (apparently) Central America. Working out the range of this new bird will be aided by your careful eBird reports (with documentation) but the tricky nomenclature and process of scientific description will be hard no matter what!

  • Turkey Vulture (Northern) Cathartes aura aura/septentrionalis
    • Cathartes aura aura – W North America south to Costa Rica; Greater Antilles
    • Cathartes aura septentrionalis – E North America
  • Turkey Vulture (Choco) Cathartes aura [undescribed form]
      • RANGE: Poorly known; likely occupies range (currently ascribed to ruficollis) in Central America, western Colombia, western Ecuador, and nw. Peru (true ruficollis would then be Amazonia and the remainder of South America e. of the Andes)
  • Turkey Vulture (Tropical) Cathartes aura ruficollis
      • RANGE: lowlands of South America e. of Andes; Trinidad
  • Turkey Vulture (South Temperate) Cathartes aura jota
      • RANGE: Pacific coast of Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands

Coppersmith Barbet also has some cool and interesting new subspecies groups. Different taxa in that species appear strikingly different, given that some have yellow faces and others have red faces. This year we provide subspecies groups to accommodate for these different taxa, but note that the different morphotypes jump around with geography. The evolutionary history here is really cool, with both red-faced and yellow-faced tuypes emerging independently more than once each. Read more in this detailed study. We encourage eBirders to track these birds, and document them with photos and audio, to better understand the significance of these variations.

  • Coppersmith Barbet (Western Yellow-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus indicus/delicus
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus indicus – NE Pakistan to s China, s to Sri Lanka, Singapore and Vietnam
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus delicus – Sumatra
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Javan Red-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus roseus – Java and Bali
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Philippine Yellow-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus [haemacephalus Group]
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus haemacephalus – N Philippines (Luzon and Mindoro)
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus celestinoi – Philippines (Samar, Leyte, Biliran and Catanduanes)
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus mindanensis – Mindanao (s Philippines)
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Philippine Red-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus [intermedius Group]
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus intermedius – Philippines (Guimaras, Negros, Panay, Calagayan, Pan de Azucar)
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus cebuensis – Cebu (central Philippines)
    • Psilopogon haemacephalus homochroa – Philippines (Masbate, Romblon and Tablas); possibly Palawan

Here is a list of the other newly-added groups:

  • Delegorgue’s Pigeon (Northern) Columba delegorguei sharpei
  • Delegorgue’s Pigeon (Southern) Columba delegorguei delegorguei
  • Brush Cuckoo (Sulawesi) Cacomantis variolosus virescens
  • Brush Cuckoo (Solomons) Cacomantis variolosus addendus
  • Brush Cuckoo (Manus) Cacomantis variolosus blandus
  • Great Eared-Nightjar (Great) Lyncornis macrotis cerviniceps/bourdilloni
  • Great Eared-Nightjar (Simelue) Lyncornis macrotis jacobsoni
  • Great Eared-Nightjar (Philippine) Lyncornis macrotis macrotis
  • Great Eared-Nightjar (Sulawesi) Lyncornis macrotis macropterus
  • Savanna Nightjar (Northern) Caprimulgus affinis [monticolus Group]
  • Savanna Nightjar (Sunda) Caprimulgus affinis [affinis Group]
  • White-throated Needletail (White-lored) Hirundapus caudacutus caudacutus
  • White-throated Needletail (Himalayan) Hirundapus caudacutus nudipes
  • Sunbittern (Northern) Eurypyga helias major/meridionalis
  • Sunbittern (Amazonian) Eurypyga helias helias
  • Black-bellied Storm-Petrel (Subantarctic) Fregetta tropica tropica
  • Black-bellied Storm-Petrel (Gough) Fregetta tropica melanoleuca
  • Oriental Honey-buzzard (Sunda) Pernis ptilorhynchus [ptilorhynchus Group]
  • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon (Alagoas) Trogon chrysochloros muriciensis
  • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon (Southern) Trogon chrysochloros chrysochloros
  • African Pygmy Kingfisher (Northern) Ispidina picta picta/ferrugina
  • African Pygmy Kingfisher (Southern) Ispidina picta natalensis
  • Green Barbet (Misuku Hills) Cryptolybia olivacea rungweensis
  • Green Barbet (Mt. Thyolo) Cryptolybia olivacea belcheri
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Western Yellow-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus indicus/delicus
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Javan Red-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus roseus
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Philippine Yellow-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus [haemacephalus Group]
  • Coppersmith Barbet (Philippine Red-faced) Psilopogon haemacephalus [intermedius Group]
  • Norfolk Island Parakeet (Norfolk I.) Cyanoramphus cookii cookii
  • Norfolk Island Parakeet (Lord Howe I.) Cyanoramphus cookii subflavescens
  • Gray Parrot (Principe) Psittacus erithacus princeps
  • South Papuan Pitta (Western) Erythropitta macklotii [macklotii Group]
  • South Papuan Pitta (D’Entrecasteaux) Erythropitta macklotii finschii
  • Black-headed Antthrush (Central American) Formicarius nigricapillus nigricapillus
  • Black-headed Antthrush (Choco) Formicarius nigricapillus destructus
  • Gray-throated Leaftosser (Central American) Sclerurus albigularis canigularis
  • Gray-throated Leaftosser (South American) Sclerurus albigularis [albigularis Group]
  • Streaked Tit-Spinetail (Streak-throated) Leptasthenura striata striata/superciliaris
  • Streaked Tit-Spinetail (White-throated) Leptasthenura striata albigularis
  • Helmeted Friarbird (Arnhem Land) Philemon buceroides gordoni/ammitophilus
  • Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Roving) Coracina striata [sumatrensis Group]
  • Wallacean Cuckooshrike (Wallacean) Coracina personata [personata Group]
  • Wallacean Cuckooshrike (Alor) Coracina personata alfrediana
  • Black-backed Puffback (Black-winged) Dryoscopus cubla affinis
  • Black-backed Puffback (White-winged) Dryoscopus cubla [cubla Group]
  • Ashy Drongo (White-cheeked) Dicrurus leucophaeus leucogenis
  • Ashy Drongo (White-lored) Dicrurus leucophaeus salangensis
  • Ashy Drongo (Hainan) Dicrurus leucophaeus innexus
  • Black Paradise-Flycatcher (Northern) Terpsiphone atrocaudata atrocaudata/ilex
  • Black Paradise-Flycatcher (Philippines) Terpsiphone atrocaudata periophthalmica
  • Steller’s Jay (Northwest Interior) Cyanocitta stelleri annectens
  • Slender-billed Crow (Sulawesi) Corvus enca celebensis/mangoli
  • Ruby-throated Bulbul (Yellow-eyed) Rubigula dispar dispar
  • Ruby-throated Bulbul (Red-eyed) Rubigula dispar matamerah
  • Olive-winged Bulbul (Olive-winged) Pycnonotus plumosus [plumosus Group]
  • Olive-winged Bulbul (Barusan) Pycnonotus plumosus porphyreus
  • Yellow-vented Bulbul (Sunda) Pycnonotus goiavier [analis Group]
  • Yellow-vented Bulbul (Philippine) Pycnonotus goiavier [goiavier Group]
  • Short-tailed Babbler (Mourning) Pellorneum malaccense malaccense
  • Short-tailed Babbler (Leaflitter) Pellorneum malaccense poliogenys
  • Short-tailed Babbler (Glissando) Pellorneum malaccense sordidum
  • White-chested Babbler (Malayan) Pellorneum rostratum rostratum
  • White-chested Babbler (Bornean) Pellorneum rostratum macropterum
  • Siberian Thrush (Continental) Geokichla sibirica sibirica
  • Siberian Thrush (Sakhalin) Geokichla sibirica davisoni
  • Dark-sided Flycatcher (Siberian) Muscicapa sibirica sibirica
  • Dark-sided Flycatcher (Himalayan) Muscicapa sibirica [cacabata Group]
  • Large Niltava (Large) Niltava grandis [grandis Group]
  • Large Niltava (Dalat) Niltava grandis decorata
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-breasted) Dicaeum ignipectus ignipectus/dolichorhynchum
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Taiwan) Dicaeum ignipectus formosum
  • Ornate Sunbird (Ornate) Cinnyris ornatus [ornatus Group]
  • Long-tailed Rosefinch (Siberian) Carpodacus sibiricus [sibiricus Group]
  • Long-tailed Rosefinch (Chinese) Carpodacus sibiricus lepidus/henrici
  • Asian Rosy-Finch (Silver-winged) Leucosticte arctoa [arctoa Group]
  • Asian Rosy-Finch (Tawny-naped) Leucosticte arctoa brunneonucha/gigliolii
  • Meadow Bunting (Rufous-eared) Emberiza cioides [cioides Group]
  • Meadow Bunting (Black-eared) Emberiza cioides ciopsis
  • Cape Bunting (Cape) Emberiza capensis [capensis Group]
  • Common Grackle (Purple) Quiscalus quiscula stonei
  • Common Grackle (Florida) Quiscalus quiscula quiscula
  • Wing-barred Seedeater (Wing-barred) Sporophila americana americana/dispar


eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic sequence (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first, before the “x”) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are sometimes followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not included in the Clements Checklist. Keep up the good work: each year it seems that eBirders notice more and more hybrids!

Most of the below hybrids represent exciting new hybrids that eBirders have discovered in the past year. Keep them coming. One however deserves a bit of explanation: Brown-rumped x Rosy Minivet (hybrid) Pericrocotus cantonensis x roseus actually is part of a taxonomic revision too, since the subspecies Pericrocotus roseus stanfordi Vaughan and Jones, 1913 (with range S China to s Thailand and s Laos) is now considered an invalid subspecies since it is thought to represent this hybrid. If you have seen birds that seem intermediate between Brown-rumped and Rosy Minivets, please add your photos under this hybrid.

With Change Species, eBirders can quickly update their lists if you already have an entry of any of these (e.g., under duck sp. or hummingbird sp.)–just use “add species” to search for these taxa which are available but typically won’t be on default data entry checklists yet.


  • Okarito Brown x Little Spotted Kiwi (hybrid) Apteryx rowi x owenii
  • Greater White-fronted Goose x Tundra Bean-Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x serrirostris
  • Greater White-fronted x Cackling/Canada Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x Branta hutchinsii/canadensis
  • Egyptian Goose x Muscovy Duck (hybrid) Alopochen aegyptiaca x Cairina moschata
  • Pacific Black Duck x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas superciliosa x acuta
  • Common x Baer’s Pochard (hybrid) Aythya ferina x baeri
  • White-throated x Red-throated Piping-Guan (hybrid) Pipile grayi x cujubi
  • Oriental Turtle-Dove x Eurasian Collared-Dove (hybrid) Streptopelia orientalis x decaocto
  • White-winged x Mourning Dove (hybrid) Zenaida asiatica x macroura
  • Little x White-rumped Swift (hybrid) Apus affinis x caffer
  • Amethyst-throated x Purple-throated Sunangel (hybrid) Heliangelus amethysticollis x viola
  • Golden-bellied x Blue-throated Starfrontlet (hybrid) Coeligena bonapartei x helianthea
  • Ruby-throated x Rufous Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus colubris x Selasphorus rufus
  • Lucifer x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid) Calothorax lucifer x Selasphorus platycercus
  • Ruby-throated x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus colubris x Selasphorus platycercus
  • Black-chinned x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus alexandri x Selasphorus platycercus
  • Anna’s x Broad-tailed Hummingbird (hybrid) Calypte anna x Selasphorus platycercus
  • Costa’s x Broad-billed Hummingbird (hybrid) Calypte costae x Cynanthus latirostris
  • Rivoli’s x White-eared Hummingbird (hybrid) Eugenes fulgens x Hylocharis leucotis
  • African x Gray-headed Swamphen (hybrid) Porphyrio madagascariensis x poliocephalus
  • Ruddy Turnstone x White-rumped Sandpiper (hybrid) Arenaria interpres x Calidris fuscicollis
  • White-rumped x Pectoral Sandpiper (hybrid) Calidris fuscicollis x melanotos
  • Humboldt x Magellanic Penguin (hybrid) Spheniscus humboldti x magellanicus
  • Gray-headed x Black-browed Albatross (hybrid) Thalassarche chrysostoma x melanophris
  • Black x White Stork (hybrid) Ciconia nigra x ciconia
  • Masked x Nazca Booby (hybrid) Sula dactylatra x granti
  • Blue-footed x Peruvian Booby (hybrid) Sula nebouxii x variegata
  • Great Egret x Cocoi Heron (hybrid) Ardea alba x cocoi
  • Gray x Purple Heron (hybrid) Ardea cinerea x purpurea
  • Pallid x Montagu’s Harrier (hybrid) Circus macrourus x pygargus
  • Blue-eared x Black-eared Barbet (hybrid) Psilopogon cyanotis x duvaucelii
  • Yellow-bellied/Red-naped x Red-breasted Sapsucker (hybrid) Sphyrapicus varius/nuchalis x ruber
  • Hairy x White-headed Woodpecker (hybrid) Dryobates villosus x albolarvatus
  • Red-crowned x Yellow-crowned Parakeet (hybrid) Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae x auriceps
  • Red-crowned x Chatham Islands Parakeet (hybrid) Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae x forbesi
  • Bare-eyed x White-breasted Antbird (hybrid) Rhegmatorhina gymnops x hoffmannsi
  • Harlequin x White-breasted Antbird (hybrid) Rhegmatorhina berlepschi x hoffmannsi
  • Common x Xingu Scale-backed Antbird (hybrid) Willisornis poecilinotus x vidua
  • Helmeted x Blue-backed Manakin (hybrid) Antilophia galeata x Chiroxiphia pareola
  • Brown-rumped x Rosy Minivet (hybrid) Pericrocotus cantonensis x roseus
  • Black-capped x White-eyed Vireo (hybrid) Vireo atricapilla x griseus
  • Mountain x Mexican Chickadee (hybrid) Poecile gambeli x sclateri
  • Eurasian x Black-headed Penduline-Tit (hybrid) Remiz pendulinus x macronyx
  • Cuban x Caribbean Martin (hybrid) Progne cryptoleuca x dominicensis
  • Willow Warbler x Common Chiffchaff (hybrid) Phylloscopus trochilus x collybita
  • House x Carolina Wren (hybrid) Troglodytes aedon x Thryothorus ludovicianus
  • Burmese x Jungle Myna (hybrid) Acridotheres burmannicus x fuscus
  • White-cheeked Starling x Crested Myna (hybrid) Spodiopsar cineraceus x Acridotheres cristatellus
  • Scaly-breasted x White-rumped Munia (hybrid) Lonchura punctulata x striata
  • Gray-headed x Chestnut-breasted Munia (hybrid) Lonchura caniceps x castaneothorax
  • Common x African Chaffinch (hybrid) Fringilla coelebs x spodiogenys
  • Common Chaffinch x Brambling (hybrid) Fringilla coelebs x montifringilla
  • Grasshopper x Savannah Sparrow (hybrid) Ammodramus savannarum x Passerculus sandwichensis
  • White-naped x Dusky-headed Brushfinch (hybrid) Atlapetes albinucha x fuscoolivaceus
  • Western x Chihuahuan Meadowlark (hybrid) Sturnella neglecta x lilianae
  • American Redstart x Magnolia Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga ruticilla x magnolia
  • Cape May x Magnolia Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga tigrina x magnolia
  • Northern Parula x Black-throated Gray Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga americana x nigrescens
  • Yellow-rumped x Hermit Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga coronata x occidentalis
  • Summer x Scarlet Tanager (hybrid) Piranga rubra x olivacea
  • Indigo x Varied Bunting (hybrid) Passerina cyanea x versicolor


  • Long-tailed Shrike (schach x tricolor) Lanius schach schach x tricolor
  • White Wagtail (Black-backed x Chinese) Motacilla alba lugens x leucopsis


Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., Whimbrel (White-rumped)) and miscellaneous other taxa. This year’s update includes seven undescribed forms, some of which are very likely to pertain to previously unrecognized species. Note that we lost three forms this year with the description of the new species above. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Falkland Steamer-Duck (Flightless) Tachyeres brachypterus (Flightless)
  • Falkland Steamer-Duck (Flying) Tachyeres brachypterus (Flying)
  • Pasco Wood-Quail (undescribed form) Odontophorus [undescribed form]
  • Brush Cuckoo (Tanimbar) Cacomantis variolosus [undescribed form]
  • Turkey Vulture (Choco) Cathartes aura [undescribed form]
  • Puntarenas Screech-Owl (undescribed form) Megascops [undescribed form]
  • Ashy Drongo (Blackish/Sooty) Dicrurus leucophaeus [longicaudatus Group/leucophaeus Group] – note that another Ashy Drongo form is listed as a name change from Chinese White-faced [leucophaeus Group] to Ashy Drongo (Hainan/White-cheeked/White-lored).
  • Teke Cisticola (undescribed form) Cisticola [undescribed form]
  • Ethiopian Martin (undescribed form) Riparia [undescribed form] – see more in this paper
  • Mafwemiro Sunbird (undescribed form) Anthreptes [undescribed form]
  • White Wagtail (ocularis/Black-backed) Motacilla alba ocularis/lugens


eBird has a separate category for domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage or, less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. This year’s update includes four new lovebirds, including an option for indeterminate lovebirds since many domesticated birds are bred to be all white, all yellow, or all blue and thus lose their species-specific field marks (hybrids are also common in captive lovebirds). The new Ring-necked Pheasant option is also notable, since a melanistic morph of Ring-necked Pheasant was discussed in last year’s taxonomy story given their similarity to the newly-split Green Pheasant Phasianus versicolor. Please report these pheasants as Ring-necked Pheasant (Domestic type).

  • Golden Pheasant (Domestic type) Chrysolophus pictus (Domestic type)
  • Ring-necked Pheasant (Domestic type) Phasianus colchicus (Domestic type)
  • Rosy-faced Lovebird (Domestic type) Agapornis roseicollis (Domestic type)
  • Fischer’s Lovebird (Domestic type) Agapornis fischeri (Domestic type)
  • Yellow-collared Lovebird (Domestic type) Agapornis personatus (Domestic type)
  • Domestic lovebird sp. (Domestic type) Agapornis sp. (Domestic type)
  • White-rumped Munia (Domestic type) Lonchura striata (Domestic type)

DOMESTICS: Policy change on Red Junglefowl

This year we also have an important policy change on Red Junglefowl (Domestic type). Several recent genetics papers (such as 1, 2, and 3) have looked at populations of Red Junglefowl on islands where they are introduced, even places like Hawaii where those introductions happened many centuries ago by Polynesians. These studies reveal more complexity and hybridization than plumage alone might suggest. Even birds that show wild phenotype (smaller and slimmer with gray legs) can be genetically much closer to domesticated chickens than to true wild-type Red Junglefowl.

As a result, we are moving to a policy that treats all Red Junglefowl outside the current native range as Red Junglefowl (Domestic type).

Observations of Red Junglefowl (Domestic Type) where they are established and breeding in the wild, such as Hawaii—including Kauai, where birds resembling wild-type plumage are especially common—Christmas Island, Tahiti, and more, will be treated as Naturalized Exotic and “count” for your eBird Life List.

This is similar to the policy on Rock Pigeon (Feral Pigeon), which can show domesticated phenotype (white, brown, black, etc.) or wild phenotypes (gray with neat black wing bars and a broad terminal band on the tail) anywhere in its non-native range, but are also treated as Naturalized Exotic in most places.

We encourage all eBirders to select “Red Junglefowl (Domestic Type)” everywhere except when birding the forests of South and Southeast Asia. And please, do not report pet chickens (even “free-range” birds that return to coops at night). Only report birds that have truly gone feral, but we know it can be hard to tell!


As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, Velvet Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • White-bellied/Spotted Nothura Nothura boraquira/maculosa
  • Lesser/Spotted Nothura Nothura minor/maculosa
  • Plumed/Wandering Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna eytoni/arcuata
  • Green/Cotton Pygmy-Goose Nettapus pulchellus/coromandelianus
  • Rusty-margined/Dusky-legged Guan Penelope superciliaris/obscura
  • Chinese/Taiwan Bamboo-Partridge Bambusicola thoracicus/sonorivox
  • Common/Brush Bronzewing Phaps chalcoptera/elegans
  • Cape Verde/Common Swift Apus alexandri/apus
  • Apus sp. Apus sp.
  • Andean/White-sided Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella/leucopleurus
  • Dusky/Broad-billed Hummingbird Phaeoptila sordida/Cynanthus latirostris
  • Violet-crowned/Green-fronted Hummingbird Ramosomyia violiceps/viridifrons
  • African/Gray-headed Swamphen Porphyrio madagascariensis/poliocephalus
  • Charadrius sp. Charadrius sp.
  • Anarhynchus sp. Anarhynchus sp.
  • Eurasian/Amami Woodcock Scolopax rusticola/mira
  • Caspian/Herring Gull Larus cachinnans/argentatus
  • Snowy/Tristan Albatross Diomedea exulans/dabbenena
  • Snowy/Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea exulans/amsterdamensis
  • Bulweria sp. Bulweria sp.
  • Bulweria/Pseudobulweria sp. Bulweria/Pseudobulweria sp.
  • Great/Yellow-billed Egret Ardea alba/brachyrhyncha
  • Western Cattle/Yellow-billed Egret Bubulcus ibis/Ardea brachyrhyncha
  • Eastern Cattle/Medium Egret Bubulcus coromandus/Ardea intermedia
  • Great/Medium Egret Ardea alba/intermedia
  • Yellow-billed/Medium Egret Ardea brachyrhyncha/intermedia
  • Eastern Cattle/Plumed Egret Bubulcus coromandus/Ardea plumifera
  • Great/Plumed Egret Ardea alba/plumifera
  • Medium/Plumed Egret Ardea intermedia/plumifera
  • White-faced/Bare-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi/Phimosus infuscatus
  • Theristicus sp. Theristicus sp.
  • Swamp/Spotted Harrier Circus approximans/assimilis
  • Eurasian/American Goshawk Accipiter gentilis/atricapillus
  • Common/Eastern Buzzard Buteo buteo/japonicus
  • African/Arabian Green Bee-eater Merops viridissimus/cyanophrys
  • Greater/Malabar Flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus/socialis
  • Gray-headed/Eurasian Green Woodpecker Picus canus/viridis
  • Colaptes sp. Colaptes sp.
  • Greater Vasa/Comoro Black Parrot Coracopsis vasa/sibilans
  • Timneh/Gray Parrot Psittacus timneh/erithacus
  • Red-crowned/Lilac-crowned Parrot Amazona viridigenalis/finschi
  • Nicobar/Western Hooded Pitta Pitta abbotti/sordida
  • Rufous-capped/Rufous-winged Antshrike Thamnophilus ruficapillus/torquatus
  • Fawn-throated/Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus cervinigularis/ochrolaemus
  • Olive-streaked/Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes olivaceus/galbinus
  • iora sp. Aegithina sp.
  • Carrion/Large-billed Crow Corvus corone/macrorhynchos
  • Eurasian/Black-headed Penduline-Tit Remiz pendulinus/macronyx
  • Remiz sp. Remiz sp.
  • Blyth’s/Large-billed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum/orinus
  • Plain/Madagascar Martin Riparia paludicola/cowani
  • Gansu/Sichuan Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus kansuensis/forresti
  • Chestnut-bellied/Burmese Nuthatch Sitta cinnamoventris/neglecta
  • Siberian/Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta arctica/europaea
  • forest robin sp. Stiphrornis sp.
  • Common/African Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs/spodiogenys
  • Yellowhammer/Pine Bunting Emberiza citrinella/leucocephalos
  • Clay-colored/Brewer’s Sparrow Spizella pallida/breweri
  • Leistes sp. Leistes sp.
  • Colima/Virginia’s Warbler Leiothlypis crissalis/virginiae
  • Black-throated Gray/Townsend’s/Hermit Warbler Setophaga nigrescens/townsendi/occidentalis
  • Stilpnia sp. Stilpnia sp.
  • Tangara sp. Tangara sp.
  • Hemithraupis sp. Hemithraupis sp.
  • Thraupidae sp. Thraupidae sp.


These are cases where an existing species_code in eBird is renamed. See the Clements Checklist updates (here) for the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a change from species to slash). Other name changes may be driven by changes in taxonomic sequence (as with hybrids and slashes, where the first-listed species always comes first), an attempt to follow an emerging consensus in local usage, or a taxonomic revision that affects hyphenation rules. Two common changes this year were a result of increased global standardization in common names: 1) standardizing the names of birds in the Comoros and Solomons Islands archipelagos; 2) . An especially important change is confusing, but only impacts two poorly-known extinct species: St. Helena Crake now becomes St. Helena Rail and St. Helena Rail some becomes St. Helena Crake!! These names match longtime usage by the IOC and signals that the use of “crake” and “rail” have been applied inconsistently and maybe due for some standardization. Regardless, Zapornia are nearly-universally referred to has crake (hence, St. Helena Crake is the preferable name) and the other Atlantisia is a rail (Inaccessible Island Rail) and their ancestors are nearly universally considered rails (hence, St. Helena Rail for that one). Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here.

  • Marbled Teal –> Marbled Duck
  • Blue-throated/Red-throated Piping-Guan –> White-throated/Red-throated Piping-Guan
  • Verreaux’s Partridge –> Chestnut-throated Monal-Partridge
  • Szechenyi’s Partridge –> Buff-throated Monal-Partridge
  • Hume’s Pheasant –> Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant
  • Japanese Wood-Pigeon –> Black Wood-Pigeon
  • Comoros Green-Pigeon –> Comoro Green-Pigeon
  • New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk) –> New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk I.)
  • Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Solomon Is.) –> Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Solomons)
  • White-crowned Koel –> White-crowned Cuckoo
  • Brush Cuckoo (Rusty-breasted) –> Brush Cuckoo (Sunda)
  • Brush Cuckoo (Brush) –> Brush Cuckoo (Australasian)
  • Donaldson-Smith’s Nightjar –> Donaldson Smith’s Nightjar
  • Philippine Spinetailed Swift –> Philippine Spinetail
  • Papuan Spinetailed Swift –> Papuan Spinetail
  • White-rumped Needletail –> White-rumped Spinetail
  • Silver-rumped Needletail –> Silver-rumped Spinetail
  • Hirundapus sp. –> needletail sp.
  • Polynesian Swiftlet –> Tahiti Swiftlet
  • Alexander’s Swift –> Cape Verde Swift
  • Horus Swift (Horus) –> Horus Swift (White-rumped)
  • Apus sp. –> Apus/Tachymarptis sp.
  • Madagascar Wood-Rail –> Madagascar Forest Rail
  • Tsingy Wood-Rail –> Tsingy Forest Rail
  • Chestnut Forest-Rail –> Chestnut Forest Rail
  • White-striped Forest-Rail –> White-striped Forest Rail
  • Forbes’s Rail –> Forbes’s Forest Rail
  • Mayr’s Rail –> Mayr’s Forest Rail
  • St. Helena Crake –> St. Helena Rail
  • St. Helena Rail –> St. Helena Crake
  • Black-winged x Black-necked Stilt (hybrid) –> Black-necked x Black-winged Stilt (hybrid)
  • Pied Lapwing –> Pied Plover
  • White-headed Lapwing –> White-crowned Lapwing
  • Blacksmith x White-headed Lapwing (hybrid) –> Blacksmith x White-crowned Lapwing (hybrid)
  • Lesser Sand-Plover (Siberian) –> Siberian Sand-Plover
  • Lesser Sand-Plover (Tibetan) –> Tibetan Sand-Plover
  • Lesser Sand-Plover –> Siberian/Tibetan Sand-Plover
  • Lesser/Greater Sand-Plover –> sand-plover sp.
  • Kentish Plover (Indian) –> Kentish Plover (Hanuman)
  • Kentish/Snowy Plover –> Snowy/Kentish Plover
  • Pin-tailed/Swinhoe’s Snipe –> Swinhoe’s/Pin-tailed Snipe
  • Common/Pin-tailed Snipe –> Pin-tailed/Common Snipe
  • Red-necked/Red Phalarope –> Red/Red-necked Phalarope
  • Spotted/Common Redshank –> Common/Spotted Redshank
  • Common/Nordmann’s Greenshank –> Nordmann’s/Common Greenshank
  • Greater/Lesser Yellowlegs –> Lesser/Greater Yellowlegs
  • Dunlin (alpina) –> Dunlin (alpina/centralis)
  • Rock/Purple Sandpiper –> Purple/Rock Sandpiper
  • White-rumped x Buff-breasted Sandpiper (hybrid) –> Buff-breasted x White-rumped Sandpiper (hybrid)
  • Semipalmated/Western Sandpiper –> Western/Semipalmated Sandpiper
  • Collared/Oriental Pratincole –> Oriental/Collared Pratincole
  • Collared/Black-winged Pratincole –> Black-winged/Collared Pratincole
  • Parasitic/Long-tailed Jaeger –> Long-tailed/Parasitic Jaeger
  • Pomarine/Long-tailed Jaeger –> Long-tailed/Pomarine Jaeger
  • Pomarine/Parasitic Jaeger –> Parasitic/Pomarine Jaeger
  • Common x Thick-billed Murre (hybrid) –> Thick-billed x Common Murre (hybrid)
  • Common/Thick-billed Murre –> Thick-billed/Common Murre
  • Black-billed/Silver Gull –> Silver/Black-billed Gull
  • Western/Yellow-footed Gull –> Yellow-footed/Western Gull
  • Herring x Caspian Gull (hybrid) –> Caspian x Herring Gull (hybrid)
  • Herring x Kelp Gull (hybrid) –> Kelp x Herring Gull (hybrid)
  • Yellow-legged x Caspian Gull (hybrid) –> Caspian x Yellow-legged Gull (hybrid)
  • Yellow-legged/Caspian Gull –> Caspian/Yellow-legged Gull
  • Herring/Yellow-legged/Caspian Gull –> Caspian/Herring/Yellow-legged Gull
  • Yellow-legged/Caspian/Armenian Gull –> Caspian/Yellow-legged/Armenian Gull
  • Glaucous x Great Black-backed Gull (hybrid) –> Great Black-backed x Glaucous Gull (hybrid)
  • California x Herring Gull (hybrid) –> Herring x California Gull (hybrid)
  • Glaucous-winged x Glaucous Gull (hybrid) –> Glaucous x Glaucous-winged Gull (hybrid)
  • Slaty-backed x Glaucous-winged Gull (hybrid) –> Glaucous-winged x Slaty-backed Gull (hybrid)
  • Slaty-backed x Glaucous Gull (hybrid) –> Glaucous x Slaty-backed Gull (hybrid)
  • Iceland Gull (glaucoides/kumlieni) –> Iceland Gull (kumlieni/glaucoides)
  • Black/Lesser Noddy –> Lesser/Black Noddy
  • Gull-billed Tern (Gull-billed) –> Gull-billed Tern
  • Gull-billed Tern (Australian) –> Australian Tern
  • Gull-billed Tern –> Gull-billed/Australian Tern
  • Common/Forster’s Tern –> Forster’s/Common Tern
  • Roseate x Common Tern (hybrid) –> Common x Roseate Tern (hybrid)
  • Black-bellied/River Tern –> River/Black-bellied Tern
  • Royal/Elegant Tern –> Elegant/Royal Tern
  • Royal/West African Crested Tern –> West African Crested/Royal Tern
  • Great x Lesser Crested Tern (hybrid) –> Lesser x Great Crested Tern (hybrid)
  • Royal Albatross (Northern) –> Northern Royal Albatross
  • Royal Albatross (Southern) –> Southern Royal Albatross
  • Royal Albatross –> Northern/Southern Royal Albatross
  • Wandering Albatross (Snowy) –> Snowy Albatross
  • Wandering Albatross (Tristan) –> Tristan Albatross
  • Wandering Albatross (New Zealand) –> Antipodean Albatross (New Zealand)
  • Wandering Albatross (Gibson’s) –> Antipodean Albatross (Gibson’s)
  • Wandering Albatross –> Snowy/Tristan/Antipodean Albatross
  • Wandering Albatross (Amsterdam) –> Amsterdam Albatross
  • Yellow-nosed Albatross (Atlantic) –> Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross
  • Yellow-nosed Albatross (Indian) –> Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross
  • Yellow-nosed Albatross –> Atlantic/Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross
  • Black-capped Petrel (Jamaican) –> Jamaican Petrel
  • Gould’s Petrel (New Caledonia) –> Gould’s Petrel (New Caledonian)
  • Masked x Brown Booby (hybrid) –> Brown x Masked Booby (hybrid)
  • Blue-footed x Brown Booby (hybrid) –> Brown x Blue-footed Booby (hybrid)
  • White-crested Bittern –> White-crested Tiger-Heron
  • Schrenck’s/Cinnamon Bittern –> Cinnamon/Schrenck’s Bittern
  • Yellow/Cinnamon Bittern –> Cinnamon/Yellow Bittern
  • Yellow-crowned Night-Heron –> Yellow-crowned Night Heron
  • Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Yellow-crowned) –> Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Yellow-crowned)
  • Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Galapagos) –> Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Galapagos)
  • Bermuda Night-Heron –> Bermuda Night Heron
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron –> Black-crowned Night Heron
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron (Eurasian) –> Black-crowned Night Heron (Eurasian)
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron (American) –> Black-crowned Night Heron (American)
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron (Dusky) –> Black-crowned Night Heron (Dusky)
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron (Falklands) –> Black-crowned Night Heron (Falklands)
  • Black-crowned x Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (hybrid) –> Yellow-crowned x Black-crowned Night Heron (hybrid)
  • Black-crowned/Yellow-crowned Night-Heron –> Yellow-crowned/Black-crowned Night Heron
  • Reunion Night-Heron –> Reunion Night Heron
  • Mauritius Night-Heron –> Mauritius Night Heron
  • Rodrigues Night-Heron –> Rodrigues Night Heron
  • Nankeen Night-Heron –> Nankeen Night Heron
  • Black-crowned x Nankeen Night-Heron (hybrid) –> Black-crowned x Nankeen Night Heron (hybrid)
  • Black-crowned/Nankeen Night-Heron –> Black-crowned/Nankeen Night Heron
  • Malayan Night-Heron –> Malayan Night Heron
  • Japanese Night-Heron –> Japanese Night Heron
  • Japanese/Malayan Night-Heron –> Malayan/Japanese Night Heron
  • Snowy Egret x Little Blue Heron (hybrid) –> Little Blue Heron x Snowy Egret (hybrid)
  • Snowy Egret x Tricolored Heron (hybrid) –> Tricolored Heron x Snowy Egret (hybrid)
  • Little x Snowy Egret (hybrid) –> Snowy x Little Egret (hybrid)
  • White-backed Night-Heron –> White-backed Night Heron
  • White-eared Night-Heron –> White-eared Night Heron
  • Green x Striated Heron (hybrid) –> Striated x Green Heron (hybrid)
  • Green/Striated Heron –> Striated/Green Heron
  • Cattle Egret (Western) –> Western Cattle Egret
  • Cattle Egret (Eastern) –> Eastern Cattle Egret
  • Cattle Egret –> Western/Eastern Cattle Egret
  • Great Egret (Eurasian) –> Great Egret (alba)
  • Great Egret (Australasian) –> Great Egret (modesta)
  • Intermediate Egret (Yellow-billed) –> Yellow-billed Egret
  • Intermediate Egret (Intermediate) –> Medium Egret
  • Intermediate Egret (Plumed) –> Plumed Egret
  • Gray Heron x Great Egret (hybrid) –> Great Egret x Gray Heron (hybrid)
  • Great Blue Heron x Great Egret (hybrid) –> Great Egret x Great Blue Heron (hybrid)
  • Eurasian Marsh-Harrier –> Western Marsh Harrier
  • African Marsh-Harrier –> African Marsh Harrier
  • Eastern Marsh-Harrier –> Eastern Marsh Harrier
  • Eurasian/Eastern Marsh-Harrier –> Western/Eastern Marsh Harrier
  • Papuan Marsh-Harrier –> Papuan Harrier
  • Eastern/Papuan Marsh-Harrier –> Eastern Marsh/Papuan Harrier
  • New Caledonia Goshawk –> New Caledonian Goshawk
  • Northern Goshawk (Eurasian) –> Eurasian Goshawk
  • Eurasian Sparrowhawk/Northern Goshawk –> Eurasian Sparrowhawk/Eurasian Goshawk
  • Northern Goshawk –> American Goshawk
  • Cooper’s Hawk x Northern Goshawk (hybrid) –> Cooper’s Hawk x American Goshawk (hybrid)
  • Cooper’s Hawk/Northern Goshawk –> Cooper’s Hawk/American Goshawk
  • Bald Eagle x Steller’s Sea-Eagle (hybrid) –> Steller’s Sea-Eagle x Bald Eagle (hybrid)
  • Haliaeetus sp. –> Haliaeetus/Icthyophaga sp.
  • Principe Scops-Owl (undescribed form) –> Principe Scops-Owl
  • Black-throated Trogon (tenellus) –> Northern Black-throated Trogon
  • Black-throated Trogon (cupreicauda) –> Choco Black-throated Trogon
  • Black-throated Trogon (rufus Group) –> Amazonian Black-throated Trogon
  • Black-throated Trogon (chrysochloros) –> Atlantic Black-throated Trogon
  • African Pied Hornbill (Western) –> West African Pied Hornbill
  • African Pied Hornbill (Congo) –> Congo Pied Hornbill
  • African Pied Hornbill –> West African/Congo Pied Hornbill
  • White-crested Hornbill (White-cheeked) –> Western Long-tailed Hornbill
  • White-crested Hornbill (Dark-cheeked) –> Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill
  • White-crested Hornbill –> Western/Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill (Western) –> Western Dwarf Hornbill
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill (Eastern) –> Eastern Dwarf Hornbill
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill –> Western/Eastern Dwarf Hornbill
  • Black-casqued/Yellow-casqued Hornbill –> Yellow-casqued/Black-casqued Hornbill
  • Pacific Kingfisher (Solomon Is.) –> Pacific Kingfisher (Solomons)
  • Blue-eared Barbet (Blue-eared) –> Blue-eared Barbet
  • Blue-eared Barbet (Black-eared) –> Black-eared Barbet
  • Blue-eared Barbet –> Blue-eared/Black-eared Barbet
  • Little Barbet –> Yellow-eared Barbet
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Scarlet-breasted) –> Crimson-naped Woodpecker
  • Darjeeling/Crimson-breasted Woodpecker –> Darjeeling/Crimson-naped Woodpecker
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Crimson-breasted) –> Necklaced Woodpecker
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker –> Crimson-naped/Necklaced Woodpecker
  • Greater Flameback (Malabar) –> Malabar Flameback
  • Buff-rumped Woodpecker (White-rumped) –> Zebra Woodpecker
  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker (Tullberg’s) –> Tullberg’s Woodpecker
  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker (Fine-banded) –> Fine-banded Woodpecker
  • Little Green Woodpecker –> Green-backed Woodpecker (Little Green)
  • Scale-breasted Woodpecker –> Waved Woodpecker (Scale-breasted)
  • Waved Woodpecker –> Waved Woodpecker (Waved)
  • Long-billed x Little Corella (hybrid) –> Little x Long-billed Corella (hybrid)
  • Salmon-crested x White Cockatoo (hybrid) –> White x Salmon-crested Cockatoo (hybrid)
  • Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Orange-crested) –> Citron-crested Cockatoo
  • corella/cockatoo sp. –> corella/white cockatoo sp.
  • Lesser Vasa Parrot (Comoro) –> Comoro Black Parrot
  • Eclectus Parrot (Moluccan) –> Moluccan Eclectus
  • Eclectus Parrot (Sumba) –> Sumba Eclectus
  • Eclectus Parrot (Tanimbar) –> Tanimbar Eclectus
  • Eclectus Parrot (Papuan) –> Papuan Eclectus
  • Oceanic Parrot –> Oceanic Eclectus
  • Eclectus Parrot –> eclectus sp.
  • Blue-rumped Parrot (Simeulue) –> Simeulue Parrot
  • Azure-rumped Parrot (Blue-backed) –> Blue-backed Parrot
  • Azure-rumped Parrot (Azure-rumped) –> Azure-rumped Parrot
  • Azure-rumped Parrot –> Blue-backed/Azure-rumped Parrot
  • Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Dusky-cheeked) –> Dusky-cheeked Fig-Parrot
  • Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Blue-fronted) –> Blue-fronted Fig-Parrot
  • Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted) –> Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted)
  • Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted) –> Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted)
  • Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot –> Cyclopsitta sp.
  • Papuan Lorikeet –> West Papuan Lorikeet
  • Papuan Lorikeet (Stella’s) –> Stella’s Lorikeet
  • Coconut Lorikeet (Biak) –> Biak Lorikeet
  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Scarlet-fronted) –> Scarlet-fronted Parakeet
  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Cordilleran) –> Cordilleran Parakeet
  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet –> Scarlet-fronted/Cordilleran Parakeet
  • Scarlet-fronted/Mitred Parakeet –> Cordilleran/Mitred Parakeet
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill (Silver-breasted) –> Silver-breasted Broadbill
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill (Gray-browed) –> Gray-lored Broadbill
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill –> Silver-breasted/Gray-lored Broadbill
  • Blue-breasted Pitta –> Philippine Pitta
  • Blue-breasted Pitta (Blue-breasted) –> Philippine Pitta (Philippine)
  • Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud) –> Philippine Pitta (Talaud)
  • Sulawesi Pitta –> Sulawesi Pitta (Sulawesi)
  • Sangihe Pitta –> Sulawesi Pitta (Sangihe)
  • Siau Pitta –> Sulawesi Pitta (Siau)
  • Papuan Pitta –> South Papuan Pitta
  • New Ireland Pitta –> Bismarck Pitta (New Ireland)
  • Tabar Pitta –> Bismarck Pitta (Tabar)
  • New Britain Pitta –> Bismarck Pitta (New Britain)
  • Hooded Pitta (Nicobar) –> Nicobar Hooded Pitta
  • Hooded Pitta (Chestnut-crowned) –> Western Hooded Pitta (Chestnut-crowned)
  • Hooded Pitta (Sunda) –> Western Hooded Pitta (Sunda)
  • Hooded Pitta (Philippine) –> Western Hooded Pitta (Philippine)
  • Hooded Pitta (Sangihe) –> Western Hooded Pitta (Sangihe)
  • Hooded Pitta (Minahasa) –> Minahasa Hooded Pitta
  • Hooded Pitta (Papuan) –> Eastern Hooded Pitta (Papuan)
  • Hooded Pitta (Numfor) –> Eastern Hooded Pitta (Numfor)
  • Hooded Pitta (Biak) –> Biak Hooded Pitta
  • White-fringed Antwren (Northern) –> Northern White-fringed Antwren
  • White-fringed Antwren (Southern) –> Southern White-fringed Antwren
  • White-fringed Antwren –> Northern/Southern White-fringed Antwren
  • Serra Antwren –> Serra Antwren (Serra)
  • Restinga Antwren –> Serra Antwren (Restinga)
  • Tawny Antpitta (Northern) –> Boyaca Antpitta
  • Tawny Antpitta (Western) –> Tawny Antpitta
  • Tawny Antpitta (Southern) –> Atuen Antpitta
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Rondonia) –> Tapajos Scythebill (Rondonia)
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tapajos) –> Tapajos Scythebill (Tapajos)
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Snethlage’s) –> Xingu Scythebill
  • Pale-legged Hornero (Pacific) –> Pacific Hornero
  • Pale-legged Hornero (Caribbean) –> Caribbean Hornero
  • Pale-legged Hornero (Pale-legged) –> Pale-legged Hornero
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (Mexican) –> Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (Mexican)
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (hypophaeus) –> Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (hypophaeus)
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner –> Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (pallidigularis) –> Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (pallidigularis)
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (turdinus) –> Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (turdinus)
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (ochrolaemus) –> Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (ochrolaemus)
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (auricularis) –> Ochre-throated Foliage-gleaner (auricularis)
  • Striped Woodhaunter (Central American) –> Western Woodhaunter
  • Striped Woodhaunter (Eastern South America) –> Eastern Woodhaunter
  • Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Plain) –> Plain Thornbird
  • Streak-backed Canastero –> Streak-backed Canastero (Streak-backed)
  • Puna Canastero –> Streak-backed Canastero (Puna)
  • Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed form) –> Tocantins Spinetail (undescribed form)
  • White-lored Spinetail (Araguaia) –> Araguaia Spinetail
  • Shrike-like Cotinga (Andean) –> Andean Laniisoma
  • Shrike-like Cotinga (Brazilian) –> Brazilian Laniisoma
  • Black-and-white Becard –> Black-and-white/Cryptic Becard
  • Royal Flycatcher –> Tropical Royal Flycatcher
  • Royal Flycatcher (Northern) –> Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Northern)
  • Royal Flycatcher (Pacific) –> Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Pacific)
  • Royal Flycatcher (Amazonian) –> Tropical Royal Flycatcher (Amazonian)
  • Royal Flycatcher (Swainson’s) –> Atlantic Royal Flycatcher
  • Serra do Mar Tyrannulet –> Serra do Mar Bristle-Tyrant
  • Sao Paulo Tyrannulet –> Sao Paulo Bristle-Tyrant
  • Olivaceous Flatbill (Western) –> Western Olivaceous Flatbill
  • Olivaceous Flatbill (Eastern) –> Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill
  • Olivaceous Flatbill –> Western/Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill
  • flatbill sp. –> Rhynchocyclus sp.
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher –> Yellow-olive Flatbill
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Gray-headed) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Gray-headed)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Yellow-olive) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Yellow-olive)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (asemus) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (asemus)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (confusus) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (confusus)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (exortivus) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (exortivus)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Trinidad) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Trinidad)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Guianan) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Guianan)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Equatorial) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Equatorial)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Andes) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Andes)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Riverine) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Riverine)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Para) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Para)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (inornatus) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (inornatus)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Mato Grosso) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Mato Grosso)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (grisescens) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (grisescens)
  • Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Sooretama) –> Yellow-olive Flatbill (Sooretama)
  • Orange-eyed Flycatcher –> Orange-eyed Flatbill
  • Yellow-winged Flycatcher –> Yellow-winged Flatbill
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher –> Yellow-margined Flatbill
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (neglectus) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (neglectus)
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (examinatus) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (examinatus)
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (obscuriceps) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (obscuriceps)
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (assimilis Group) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (assimilis Group)
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Sucunduri) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (Sucunduri)
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (paraensis) –> Yellow-margined Flatbill (paraensis)
  • Gray-crowned Flycatcher –> Gray-crowned Flatbill
  • Olive-faced Flycatcher –> Olive-faced Flatbill
  • Ochre-lored Flycatcher –> Ochre-lored Flatbill
  • Olive-faced/Ochre-lored Flycatcher –> Olive-faced/Ochre-lored Flatbill
  • Pacific-slope/Cordilleran Flycatcher (Western Flycatcher) –> Western Flycatcher
  • Pacific-slope Flycatcher –> Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope)
  • Cordilleran Flycatcher –> Western Flycatcher (Cordilleran)
  • Pacific-slope x Cordilleran Flycatcher (hybrid) –> Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope x Cordilleran Flycatcher)
  • Sooty Melidectes –> Sooty Honeyeater
  • Short-bearded Melidectes –> Short-bearded Honeyeater
  • Long-bearded Melidectes –> Long-bearded Honeyeater
  • Sulawesi Myzomela (Bacan) –> Bacan Myzomela
  • Red-collared Myzomela (Long-billed) –> Long-billed Myzomela
  • Helmeted Friarbird (Helmeted) –> Helmeted Friarbird (Tenggara)
  • Spotted/White-browed Scrubwren –> White-browed/Spotted Scrubwren
  • Brown/Tasmanian Thornbill –> Tasmanian/Brown Thornbill
  • Comoros Cuckooshrike –> Comoro Cuckooshrike
  • Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Bar-bellied) –> Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Philippine)
  • Solomons Cuckooshrike (Solomon) –> Solomons Cuckooshrike (Solomons)
  • Crested Berrypecker (Western) –> Western Crested Berrypecker
  • Crested Berrypecker (Eastern) –> Eastern Crested Berrypecker
  • Crested Berrypecker –> Western/Eastern Crested Berrypecker
  • Timor Oriole (Wetar) –> Wetar Oriole
  • Dark-throated Oriole (Ventriloquial) –> Ventriloquial Oriole
  • Black-and-crimson Oriole (Javan) –> Javan Oriole
  • Boulton’s Batis (Angolan) –> Boulton’s Batis (Angola)
  • Comoros Blue Vanga –> Comoro Blue Vanga
  • Cockerell’s Fantail –> White-winged Fantail
  • Cockerell’s Fantail (White-winged) –> White-winged Fantail (White-winged)
  • Cockerell’s Fantail (Dot-breasted) –> White-winged Fantail (Dot-breasted)
  • Cockerell’s Fantail (Black-breasted) –> White-winged Fantail (Black-breasted)
  • Cockerell’s Fantail (Spot-breasted) –> White-gorgeted Fantail
  • Arafura Fantail (Supertramp) –> Supertramp Fantail
  • Rufous Fantail (Gilolo) –> Gilolo Fantail
  • Rufous Fantail (Rufous-fronted) –> Australian Rufous Fantail
  • Rufous Fantail (Gray-tailed) –> Louisiade Fantail
  • Rufous Fantail (White-fronted) –> Santa Cruz Fantail (White-fronted)
  • Rufous Fantail (Brown-capped) –> Santa Cruz Fantail (Brown-fronted)
  • Rufous Fantail (Guam) –> Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Guam)
  • Rufous Fantail (Marianas) –> Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Marianas)
  • Rufous Fantail (Yap) –> Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Yap)
  • Rufous Fantail (Brown-backed) –> Solomons Rufous Fantail (Brown-backed)
  • Rufous Fantail (Rufous-backed) –> Solomons Rufous Fantail (Rufous-backed)
  • Rufous Fantail (Dark-throated) –> Solomons Rufous Fantail (Dark-throated)
  • Brown Fantail (Bougainville) –> Bougainville Fantail
  • Brown Fantail (Guadalcanal) –> Guadalcanal Fantail
  • Streaked Fantail (Vanuatu) –> Vanuatu Streaked Fantail
  • Streaked Fantail (Fiji) –> Fiji Streaked Fantail (Fiji)
  • Streaked Fantail (Taveuni) –> Fiji Streaked Fantail (Taveuni)
  • Streaked Fantail (New Caledonia) –> New Caledonian Streaked Fantail
  • Western Square-tailed Drongo –> Sharpe’s Drongo (Western)
  • Sharpe’s Drongo –> Sharpe’s Drongo (Eastern)
  • Common Square-tailed Drongo –> Square-tailed Drongo
  • square-tailed drongo sp. –> Sharpe’s/Square-tailed Drongo
  • Glossy-backed Drongo –> Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed)
  • Fanti Drongo –> Velvet-mantled Drongo (Fanti)
  • Ashy Drongo (Chinese White-faced) –> Ashy Drongo (Hainan/White-cheeked/White-lored)
  • Ashy Drongo (Island White-faced) –> Ashy Drongo (Sumatran)
  • Sumatran Drongo (Mentawai) –> Hair-crested Drongo (Mentawai)
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Short-tailed) –> Short-tailed Drongo
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Palawan) –> Palawan Drongo (Palawan)
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Cuyo) –> Palawan Drongo (Cuyo)
  • Paradise-crow (Halmahera) –> Halmahera Paradise-crow
  • Paradise-crow (Obi) –> Obi Paradise-crow
  • Lawes’s Parotia (Lawes’s) –> Lawes’s Parotia
  • Lawes’s Parotia (Eastern) –> Eastern Parotia
  • Lawes’s Parotia –> Lawes’s/Eastern Parotia
  • Blue-headed Crested-Flycatcher –> Blue-headed Crested Flycatcher
  • African Crested-Flycatcher –> African Crested Flycatcher
  • African Crested-Flycatcher (Eastern) –> African Crested Flycatcher (Eastern)
  • African Crested-Flycatcher (Southern) –> African Crested Flycatcher (Southern)
  • Japanese Paradise-Flycatcher –> Black Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher –> Black/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoros) –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoro)
  • Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Grand Comoro) –> Malagasy Paradise-Flycatcher (Grande Comore)
  • Crested Shrikejay –> Crested Jayshrike
  • Steller’s Jay (Interior) –> Steller’s Jay (Southwest Interior)
  • Steller’s Jay (Central American) –> Steller’s Jay (Middle American)
  • Slender-billed Crow (Slender-billed) –> Slender-billed Crow (Sunda)
  • Palm Crow (Cuban) –> Cuban Palm-Crow
  • Palm Crow (Hispaniolan) –> Hispaniolan Palm-Crow
  • Spotted Berrypecker –> Thick-billed Berrypecker
  • Spotted Berrypecker (Spotted) –> Spotted Berrypecker
  • Papuan Flycatcher –> Canary Flyrobin
  • Yellow-legged Flycatcher –> Yellow-legged Flyrobin
  • Yellow-bellied Robin –> Yellow-bellied Flyrobin
  • Torrent Flycatcher –> Torrent Flyrobin
  • Torrent Flycatcher (Torrent) –> Torrent Flyrobin (Torrent)
  • Torrent Flycatcher (New Britain) –> Torrent Flyrobin (New Britain)
  • Lemon-bellied Flycatcher –> Lemon-bellied Flyrobin
  • Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Lemon-bellied) –> Lemon-bellied Flyrobin (Lemon-bellied)
  • Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Kimberley) –> Lemon-bellied Flyrobin (Kimberley)
  • Microeca sp. –> flyrobin sp.
  • Ashy Robin (Black-capped) –> Black-capped Robin
  • Ashy Robin –> Arfak Robin
  • Olive-yellow Robin –> Banded Yellow Robin
  • Dusky Crested-Flycatcher –> Dusky Crested Flycatcher
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher –> White-bellied Crested Flycatcher
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher (White-bellied) –> White-bellied Crested Flycatcher (White-bellied)
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher (Toro) –> White-bellied Crested Flycatcher (Toro)
  • White-tailed Crested-Flycatcher –> White-tailed Crested Flycatcher
  • Latakoo Lark –> Melodious Lark
  • Horsfield’s Bushlark –> Singing Bushlark
  • Horsfield’s Bushlark (Singing) –> Singing Bushlark (Singing)
  • Horsfield’s Bushlark (Australasian) –> Singing Bushlark (Australasian)
  • Horsfield’s/Indian Bushlark –> Singing/Indian Bushlark
  • Razo Skylark –> Raso Skylark
  • Grand Comoro Brush-Warbler –> Grande Comore Brush-Warbler
  • Poodytes/Cincloramphus sp. –> Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp.
  • Plain Martin (Madagascar) –> Madagascar Martin
  • Pale Sand Martin –> Pale Martin
  • Bank Swallow/Pale Sand Martin –> Bank Swallow/Pale Martin
  • Northern Rough-winged x Violet-green Swallow (hybrid) –> Violet-green x Northern Rough-winged Swallow (hybrid)
  • Forest Swallow/Square-tailed Sawwing –> Square-tailed Sawwing/Forest Swallow
  • Common House-Martin (Western) –> Western House-Martin
  • Barn Swallow x Common House-Martin (hybrid) –> Barn Swallow x Western House-Martin (hybrid)
  • Common House-Martin (Eastern) –> Siberian House-Martin
  • Common House-Martin –> Western/Siberian House-Martin
  • Common/Asian House-Martin –> Siberian/Asian House-Martin
  • Icterine/Xavier’s Greenbul –> Xavier’s/Icterine Greenbul
  • Buff-vented/Olive Bulbul –> Olive/Buff-vented Bulbul
  • Sunda Bulbul (Sumatran) –> Sumatran Bulbul
  • Sunda Bulbul (Javan) –> Javan Bulbul
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul (Banggai) –> Banggai Golden-Bulbul
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul (Sula) –> Sula Golden-Bulbul
  • Yellowish Bulbul (Camiguin) –> Camiguin Bulbul
  • Grand Comoro Bulbul –> Grande Comore Bulbul
  • Cream-eyed/Cream-vented Bulbul –> Cream-vented/Cream-eyed Bulbul
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul (Pale-eyed) –> Pale-eyed Bulbul
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul (Stripe-throated) –> Stripe-throated Bulbul
  • Stripe-throated/Olive-winged Bulbul –> Olive-winged/Stripe-throated Bulbul
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul –> Pale-eyed/Stripe-throated Bulbul
  • Flavescent Bulbul (Pale-faced) –> Pale-faced Bulbul
  • Styan’s x Light-vented Bulbul (hybrid) –> Light-vented x Styan’s Bulbul (hybrid)
  • Styan’s/Light-vented Bulbul –> Light-vented/Styan’s Bulbul
  • Red-vented x Red-whiskered Bulbul (hybrid) –> Red-whiskered x Red-vented Bulbul (hybrid)
  • Red-vented/Red-whiskered Bulbul –> Red-whiskered/Red-vented Bulbul
  • Brachypodius/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp. –> Microtarsus/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp.
  • bush warbler sp. –> Horornis sp.
  • Streak-throated Fulvetta –> Manipur Fulvetta
  • fulvetta sp. –> fulvetta sp. (genus Fulvetta)
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill (Yunnan) –> Eye-ringed Parrotbill
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill (Brown-winged) –> Brown-winged Parrotbill
  • Black-crowned Babbler (affinis) –> Calabarzon Babbler
  • Black-crowned Babbler (nigrocapitatus/boholensis) –> Visayan Babbler
  • Cream-throated White-eye (Morotai) –> Morotai White-eye
  • Wangi-Wangi White-eye (undescribed form) –> Wangi-Wangi White-eye
  • Gray-throated White-eye (Bougainville) –> Bougainville White-eye
  • Black-capped Babbler (Black-capped) –> Malayan Black-capped Babbler
  • Black-capped Babbler (Rufous-browed) –> Javan Black-capped Babbler
  • Pale-breasted Illadopsis (Gray-breasted) –> Tanzanian Illadopsis
  • Eurasian Nuthatch (Siberian) –> Siberian Nuthatch
  • Indian Pied Starling x Chestnut-tailed Starling (hybrid) –> Indian Pied x Chestnut-tailed Starling (hybrid)
  • Tropical Mockingbird (Tropical) –> Tropical Mockingbird (Southern)
  • Mimidae sp. –> mimid sp.
  • Island Thrush (New Caledonia) –> Island Thrush (New Caledonian)
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher (Siamese) –> Asian Brown Flycatcher (Southern)
  • Mariqua Flycatcher –> Marico Flycatcher
  • Grand Comoro Flycatcher –> Grande Comore Flycatcher
  • Pale-chinned Blue Flycatcher –> Pale-chinned Flycatcher
  • blue flycatcher sp. –> Cyornis sp.
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Yellow-crowned) –> Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Flame-crowned) –> Flame-crowned Flowerpecker
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-breasted) –> Fire-breasted Flowerpecker
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Cambodian) –> Cambodian Flowerpecker
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-throated) –> Fire-throated Flowerpecker
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Sumatran) –> Sumatran Flowerpecker
  • Mistletoebird (Pink-breasted) –> Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Pink-breasted)
  • Mistletoebird (Aru) –> Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Aru)
  • Mariqua Sunbird –> Marico Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird –> Ornate Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Cream-bellied) –> Ornate Sunbird (Cream-bellied)
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Yellow-faced) –> Sahul Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Orange-breasted) –> Palawan Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Black-breasted) –> South Moluccan Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Black-bellied) –> Flores Sea Sunbird
  • Olive-backed Sunbird (Rand’s) –> Mamberamo Sunbird
  • Malagasy Sunbird (Grand Comoro) –> Malagasy Sunbird (Grande Comore)
  • Mountain Sunbird –> Metallic-winged Sunbird (Luzon)
  • Bohol Sunbird –> Metallic-winged Sunbird (Bohol)
  • Metallic-winged Sunbird –> Metallic-winged Sunbird (Southern)
  • Asian Fairy-bluebird (Palawan) –> Palawan Fairy-bluebird
  • Blue-winged Leafbird (Javan) –> Javan Leafbird
  • Donaldson-Smith’s Sparrow-Weaver –> Donaldson Smith’s Sparrow-Weaver
  • Red-headed Fody (Grand Comoro) –> Red-headed Fody (Grande Comore)
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (lutea/flavissima) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima/lutea)
  • Common Chaffinch (Canary Is.) –> Canary Islands Chaffinch (Canary Is.)
  • Common Chaffinch (La Palma) –> Canary Islands Chaffinch (La Palma)
  • Common Chaffinch (African) –> African Chaffinch (African)
  • Common Chaffinch (Tunisian) –> African Chaffinch (Tunisian)
  • Antillean Euphonia (Hispaniolan) –> Hispaniolan Euphonia
  • Antillean Euphonia (Puerto Rico) –> Puerto Rican Euphonia
  • Antillean Euphonia (Lesser) –> Lesser Antillean Euphonia
  • Trinidad/Velvet-fronted Euphonia –> Velvet-fronted/Trinidad Euphonia
  • Vincent’s Bunting –> Cape Bunting (Vincent’s)
  • Common Grackle (Purple) –> Common Grackle (Florida/Purple)
  • Carmiol’s Tanager (Yellow-lored) –> Yellow-lored Tanager
  • Blue Seedeater (Equatorial) –> Ecuadorian Seedeater
  • Turquoise Tanager (White-bellied) –> White-bellied Tanager
  • Ibera Seedeater (undescribed form) –> Ibera Seedeater
  • Caqueta Seedeater –> Wing-barred Seedeater (Caqueta)
  • Cuban Bullfinch (Cuban) –> Cuban Bullfinch
  • Cuban Bullfinch (Grand Cayman) –> Grand Cayman Bullfinch


These are cases where an existing species_code in eBird is renamed. See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). We display the primary (v2023) English name as well (thus, the English name would match the revised Scientific Name in instances of a split).

  • White-throated/Red-throated Piping-Guan: Pipile cumanensis/cujubi –> Pipile grayi/cujubi
  • Spruce Grouse (Spruce x Franklin’s): Canachites canadensis [canadensis Group x franklinii/isleibi] –> Canachites canadensis [canadensis Group] x franklinii/isleibi
  • Spotted Dove (Western): Spilopelia chinensis suratensis –> Spilopelia chinensis suratensis/ceylonensis
  • Wetar Ground Dove: Alopecoenas hoedtii –> Pampusana hoedtii
  • Shy Ground Dove: Alopecoenas stairi –> Pampusana stairi
  • Santa Cruz Ground Dove: Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis –> Pampusana sanctaecrucis
  • Thick-billed Ground Dove: Alopecoenas salamonis –> Pampusana salamonis
  • Tanna Ground Dove: Alopecoenas ferrugineus –> Pampusana ferruginea
  • Bronze Ground Dove: Alopecoenas beccarii –> Pampusana beccarii
  • Bronze Ground Dove (Western): Alopecoenas beccarii beccarii –> Pampusana beccarii beccarii
  • Bronze Ground Dove (Eastern): Alopecoenas beccarii [johannae Group] –> Pampusana beccarii [johannae Group]
  • Palau Ground Dove: Alopecoenas canifrons –> Pampusana canifrons
  • White-bibbed Ground Dove: Alopecoenas jobiensis –> Pampusana jobiensis
  • Marquesas Ground Dove: Alopecoenas rubescens –> Pampusana rubescens
  • Caroline Islands Ground Dove: Alopecoenas kubaryi –> Pampusana kubaryi
  • Polynesian Ground Dove: Alopecoenas erythropterus –> Pampusana erythroptera
  • White-throated Ground Dove: Alopecoenas xanthonurus –> Pampusana xanthonura
  • Norfolk Ground Dove: Alopecoenas norfolkensis –> Pampusana norfolkensis
  • Karoo Bustard: Eupodotis vigorsii –> Heterotetrax vigorsii
  • Rüppell’s Bustard: Eupodotis rueppelii –> Heterotetrax rueppelii
  • Little Brown Bustard: Eupodotis humilis –> Heterotetrax humilis
  • Savile’s Bustard: Eupodotis savilei –> Lophotis savilei
  • Buff-crested Bustard: Eupodotis gindiana –> Lophotis gindiana
  • Red-crested Bustard: Eupodotis ruficrista –> Lophotis ruficrista
  • Black Bustard: Eupodotis afra –> Afrotis afra
  • White-quilled Bustard: Eupodotis afraoides –> Afrotis afraoides
  • White-cheeked Turaco: Tauraco leucotis –> Menelikornis leucotis
  • White-cheeked Turaco (White-cheeked): Tauraco leucotis leucotis –> Menelikornis leucotis leucotis
  • White-cheeked Turaco (Donaldson’s): Tauraco leucotis donaldsoni –> Menelikornis leucotis donaldsoni
  • Prince Ruspoli’s Turaco: Tauraco ruspolii –> Menelikornis ruspolii
  • White-cheeked x Prince Ruspoli’s Turaco (hybrid): Tauraco leucotis x ruspolii –> Menelikornis leucotis x ruspolii
  • Purple-crested Turaco: Tauraco porphyreolophus –> Gallirex porphyreolophus
  • Rwenzori Turaco: Ruwenzorornis johnstoni –> Gallirex johnstoni
  • Rwenzori Turaco (Rwenzori): Ruwenzorornis johnstoni johnstoni –> Gallirex johnstoni johnstoni
  • Rwenzori Turaco (Mt. Kabobo): Ruwenzorornis johnstoni bredoi –> Gallirex johnstoni bredoi
  • Rwenzori Turaco (Kivu): Ruwenzorornis johnstoni kivuensis –> Gallirex johnstoni kivuensis
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird: Corythaixoides personatus –> Crinifer personatus
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Brown-faced): Corythaixoides personatus personatus –> Crinifer personatus personatus
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Black-faced): Corythaixoides personatus leopoldi –> Crinifer personatus leopoldi
  • Gray Go-away-bird: Corythaixoides concolor –> Crinifer concolor
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird: Corythaixoides leucogaster –> Crinifer leucogaster
  • Brush Cuckoo (Sunda): Cacomantis variolosus [sepulcralis Group] –> Cacomantis variolosus sepulcralis/everetti
  • Alpine Swift: Apus melba –> Tachymarptis melba
  • Mottled Swift: Apus aequatorialis –> Tachymarptis aequatorialis
  • Horus Swift (White-rumped): Apus horus horus –> Apus horus (White-rumped)
  • Horus Swift (Brown-rumped): Apus horus fuscobrunneus –> Apus horus (Brown-rumped)
  • Apus/Tachymarptis sp.: Apus sp. –> Apus/Tachymarptis sp.
  • Violet-crowned Hummingbird: Leucolia violiceps –> Ramosomyia violiceps
  • Broad-billed x Violet-crowned Hummingbird (hybrid): Cynanthus latirostris x Leucolia violiceps –> Cynanthus latirostris x Ramosomyia violiceps
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird: Leucolia viridifrons –> Ramosomyia viridifrons
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird (Green-fronted): Leucolia viridifrons viridifrons –> Ramosomyia viridifrons viridifrons
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird (Cinnamon-sided): Leucolia viridifrons wagneri –> Ramosomyia viridifrons wagneri
  • Green-fronted Hummingbird (villadai): Leucolia viridifrons villadai –> Ramosomyia viridifrons villadai
  • Chestnut Forest Rail: Rallina rubra –> Rallicula rubra
  • White-striped Forest Rail: Rallina leucospila –> Rallicula leucospila
  • Forbes’s Forest Rail: Rallina forbesi –> Rallicula forbesi
  • Mayr’s Forest Rail: Rallina mayri –> Rallicula mayri
  • Zapata Rail: Cyanolimnas cerverai –> Mustelirallus cerverai
  • Ocellated Crake: Micropygia schomburgkii –> Rufirallus schomburgkii
  • Russet-crowned Crake: Anurolimnas viridis –> Rufirallus viridis
  • Chestnut-headed Crake: Anurolimnas castaneiceps –> Rufirallus castaneiceps
  • Double-striped Thick-knee: Burhinus bistriatus –> Hesperoburhinus bistriatus
  • Peruvian Thick-knee: Burhinus superciliaris –> Hesperoburhinus superciliaris
  • Black-necked x Black-winged Stilt (hybrid): Himantopus himantopus x mexicanus –> Himantopus mexicanus x himantopus
  • South Island x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid): Haematopus finschi x unicolor –> Haematopus unicolor x finschi
  • golden-plover sp.: Pluvialis apricaria/dominica/fulva –> Pluvialis dominica/apricaria/fulva
  • Pied Plover: Vanellus cayanus –> Hoploxypterus cayanus
  • Rufous-chested Dotterel: Charadrius modestus –> Zonibyx modestus
  • Eurasian Dotterel: Charadrius morinellus –> Eudromias morinellus
  • Hooded Plover: Thinornis cucullatus –> Charadrius cucullatus
  • Black-fronted Dotterel: Elseyornis melanops –> Charadrius melanops
  • Shore Plover: Thinornis novaeseelandiae –> Charadrius novaeseelandiae
  • Caspian Plover: Charadrius asiaticus –> Anarhynchus asiaticus
  • Oriental Plover: Charadrius veredus –> Anarhynchus veredus
  • Siberian Sand-Plover: Charadrius mongolus mongolus/stegmanni –> Anarhynchus mongolus
  • Tibetan Sand-Plover: Charadrius mongolus [atrifrons Group] –> Anarhynchus atrifrons
  • Siberian/Tibetan Sand-Plover: Charadrius mongolus –> Anarhynchus mongolus/atrifrons
  • Greater Sand-Plover: Charadrius leschenaultii –> Anarhynchus leschenaultii
  • sand-plover sp.: Charadrius mongolus/leschenaultii –> Anarhynchus atrifrons/mongolus/leschenaultii
  • Double-banded Plover: Charadrius bicinctus –> Anarhynchus bicinctus
  • Red-breasted Dotterel: Charadrius obscurus –> Anarhynchus obscurus
  • Red-breasted Dotterel (Northern): Charadrius obscurus aquilonius –> Anarhynchus obscurus aquilonius
  • Red-breasted Dotterel (Southern): Charadrius obscurus obscurus –> Anarhynchus obscurus obscurus
  • Wilson’s Plover: Charadrius wilsonia –> Anarhynchus wilsonia
  • Collared Plover: Charadrius collaris –> Anarhynchus collaris
  • Mountain Plover: Charadrius montanus –> Anarhynchus montanus
  • Puna Plover: Charadrius alticola –> Anarhynchus alticola
  • Two-banded Plover: Charadrius falklandicus –> Anarhynchus falklandicus
  • Madagascar Plover: Charadrius thoracicus –> Anarhynchus thoracicus
  • Kittlitz’s Plover: Charadrius pecuarius –> Anarhynchus pecuarius
  • St. Helena Plover: Charadrius sanctaehelenae –> Anarhynchus sanctaehelenae
  • Red-capped Plover: Charadrius ruficapillus –> Anarhynchus ruficapillus
  • Snowy Plover: Charadrius nivosus –> Anarhynchus nivosus
  • Snowy Plover (nivosus): Charadrius nivosus nivosus –> Anarhynchus nivosus nivosus
  • Snowy Plover (occidentalis): Charadrius nivosus occidentalis –> Anarhynchus nivosus occidentalis
  • Chestnut-banded Plover: Charadrius pallidus –> Anarhynchus pallidus
  • Malaysian Plover: Charadrius peronii –> Anarhynchus peronii
  • White-fronted Plover: Charadrius marginatus –> Anarhynchus marginatus
  • Javan Plover: Charadrius javanicus –> Anarhynchus javanicus
  • Kentish Plover: Charadrius alexandrinus –> Anarhynchus alexandrinus
  • Kentish Plover (Kentish): Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus/nihonensis –> Anarhynchus alexandrinus alexandrinus/nihonensis
  • Kentish Plover (Hanuman): Charadrius alexandrinus seebohmi –> Anarhynchus alexandrinus seebohmi
  • Snowy/Kentish Plover: Charadrius alexandrinus/nivosus –> Anarhynchus nivosus/alexandrinus
  • White-faced Plover: Charadrius dealbatus –> Anarhynchus dealbatus
  • Kentish/White-faced Plover: Charadrius alexandrinus/dealbatus –> Anarhynchus alexandrinus/dealbatus
  • small plover sp.: Charadrius sp. –> Charadrius/Anarhynchus sp.
  • Swinhoe’s/Pin-tailed Snipe: Gallinago stenura/megala –> Gallinago megala/stenura
  • Pin-tailed/Common Snipe: Gallinago gallinago/stenura –> Gallinago stenura/gallinago
  • Red/Red-necked Phalarope: Phalaropus lobatus/fulicarius –> Phalaropus fulicarius/lobatus
  • Common/Spotted Redshank: Tringa erythropus/totanus –> Tringa totanus/erythropus
  • Nordmann’s/Common Greenshank: Tringa nebularia/guttifer –> Tringa guttifer/nebularia
  • Lesser/Greater Yellowlegs: Tringa melanoleuca/flavipes –> Tringa flavipes/melanoleuca
  • Dunlin (alpina/centralis): Calidris alpina alpina –> Calidris alpina alpina/centralis
  • Purple/Rock Sandpiper: Calidris ptilocnemis/maritima –> Calidris maritima/ptilocnemis
  • Buff-breasted x White-rumped Sandpiper (hybrid): Calidris fuscicollis x subruficollis –> Calidris subruficollis x fuscicollis
  • Western/Semipalmated Sandpiper: Calidris pusilla/mauri –> Calidris mauri/pusilla
  • Oriental/Collared Pratincole: Glareola pratincola/maldivarum –> Glareola maldivarum/pratincola
  • Black-winged/Collared Pratincole: Glareola pratincola/nordmanni –> Glareola nordmanni/pratincola
  • Long-tailed/Parasitic Jaeger: Stercorarius parasiticus/longicaudus –> Stercorarius longicaudus/parasiticus
  • Long-tailed/Pomarine Jaeger: Stercorarius pomarinus/longicaudus –> Stercorarius longicaudus/pomarinus
  • Parasitic/Pomarine Jaeger: Stercorarius pomarinus/parasiticus –> Stercorarius parasiticus/pomarinus
  • Thick-billed x Common Murre (hybrid): Uria aalge x lomvia –> Uria lomvia x aalge
  • Thick-billed/Common Murre: Uria aalge/lomvia –> Uria lomvia/aalge
  • large alcid sp.: Uria/Alca sp. –> Alca/Uria sp.
  • Silver/Black-billed Gull: Chroicocephalus bulleri/novaehollandiae –> Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae/bulleri
  • Yellow-footed/Western Gull: Larus occidentalis/livens –> Larus livens/occidentalis
  • Caspian x Herring Gull (hybrid): Larus argentatus x cachinnans –> Larus cachinnans x argentatus
  • Kelp x Herring Gull (hybrid): Larus argentatus x dominicanus –> Larus dominicanus x argentatus
  • Caspian x Yellow-legged Gull (hybrid): Larus michahellis x cachinnans –> Larus cachinnans x michahellis
  • Caspian/Yellow-legged Gull: Larus michahellis/cachinnans –> Larus cachinnans/michahellis
  • Caspian/Herring/Yellow-legged Gull: Larus argentatus/michahellis/cachinnans –> Larus cachinnans/argentatus/michahellis
  • Caspian/Yellow-legged/Armenian Gull: Larus michahellis/cachinnans/armenicus –> Larus cachinnans/michahellis/armenicus
  • Great Black-backed x Glaucous Gull (hybrid): Larus hyperboreus x marinus –> Larus marinus x hyperboreus
  • Herring x California Gull (hybrid): Larus californicus x argentatus –> Larus argentatus x californicus
  • Glaucous x Glaucous-winged Gull (hybrid): Larus glaucescens x hyperboreus –> Larus hyperboreus x glaucescens
  • Glaucous-winged x Slaty-backed Gull (hybrid): Larus schistisagus x glaucescens –> Larus glaucescens x schistisagus
  • Glaucous x Slaty-backed Gull (hybrid): Larus schistisagus x hyperboreus –> Larus hyperboreus x schistisagus
  • Iceland Gull (kumlieni/glaucoides): Larus glaucoides glaucoides/kumlieni –> Larus glaucoides kumlieni/glaucoides
  • Lesser/Black Noddy: Anous minutus/tenuirostris –> Anous tenuirostris/minutus
  • Gull-billed Tern: Gelochelidon nilotica [nilotica Group] –> Gelochelidon nilotica
  • Australian Tern: Gelochelidon nilotica macrotarsa –> Gelochelidon macrotarsa
  • Gull-billed/Australian Tern: Gelochelidon nilotica –> Gelochelidon nilotica/macrotarsa
  • Forster’s/Common Tern: Sterna hirundo/forsteri –> Sterna forsteri/hirundo
  • Common x Roseate Tern (hybrid): Sterna dougallii x hirundo –> Sterna hirundo x dougallii
  • River/Black-bellied Tern: Sterna acuticauda/aurantia –> Sterna aurantia/acuticauda
  • Elegant/Royal Tern: Thalasseus maximus/elegans –> Thalasseus elegans/maximus
  • West African Crested/Royal Tern: Thalasseus maximus/albididorsalis –> Thalasseus albididorsalis/maximus
  • Lesser x Great Crested Tern (hybrid): Thalasseus bergii x bengalensis –> Thalasseus bengalensis x bergii
  • Northern Royal Albatross: Diomedea epomophora sanfordi –> Diomedea sanfordi
  • Southern Royal Albatross: Diomedea epomophora epomophora –> Diomedea epomophora
  • Northern/Southern Royal Albatross: Diomedea epomophora –> Diomedea sanfordi/epomophora
  • Snowy Albatross: Diomedea exulans exulans –> Diomedea exulans
  • Tristan Albatross: Diomedea exulans dabbenena –> Diomedea dabbenena
  • Antipodean Albatross (New Zealand): Diomedea exulans antipodensis –> Diomedea antipodensis antipodensis
  • Antipodean Albatross (Gibson’s): Diomedea exulans gibsoni –> Diomedea antipodensis gibsoni
  • Snowy/Tristan/Antipodean Albatross: Diomedea exulans –> Diomedea exulans/dabbenena/antipodensis
  • Amsterdam Albatross: Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis –> Diomedea amsterdamensis
  • Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatross: Thalassarche chlororhynchos chlororhynchos –> Thalassarche chlororhynchos
  • Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross: Thalassarche chlororhynchos carteri –> Thalassarche carteri
  • Atlantic/Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross: Thalassarche chlororhynchos –> Thalassarche chlororhynchos/carteri
  • Jamaican Petrel: Pterodroma hasitata caribbaea –> Pterodroma caribbaea
  • Brown x Masked Booby (hybrid): Sula dactylatra x leucogaster –> Sula leucogaster x dactylatra
  • Brown x Blue-footed Booby (hybrid): Sula nebouxii x leucogaster –> Sula leucogaster x nebouxii
  • Cinnamon/Schrenck’s Bittern: Ixobrychus eurhythmus/cinnamomeus –> Ixobrychus cinnamomeus/eurhythmus
  • Cinnamon/Yellow Bittern: Ixobrychus sinensis/cinnamomeus –> Ixobrychus cinnamomeus/sinensis
  • Yellow-crowned x Black-crowned Night Heron (hybrid): Nycticorax nycticorax x Nyctanassa violacea –> Nyctanassa violacea x Nycticorax nycticorax
  • Malayan/Japanese Night Heron: Gorsachius goisagi/melanolophus –> Gorsachius melanolophus/goisagi
  • Little Blue Heron x Snowy Egret (hybrid): Egretta thula x caerulea –> Egretta caerulea x thula
  • Tricolored Heron x Snowy Egret (hybrid): Egretta thula x tricolor –> Egretta tricolor x thula
  • Snowy x Little Egret (hybrid): Egretta garzetta x thula –> Egretta thula x garzetta
  • White-backed Night Heron: Gorsachius leuconotus –> Calherodius leuconotus
  • White-eared Night Heron: Gorsachius magnificus –> Oroanassa magnifica
  • Striated x Green Heron (hybrid): Butorides virescens x striata –> Butorides striata x virescens
  • Striated/Green Heron: Butorides virescens/striata –> Butorides striata/virescens
  • Western Cattle Egret: Bubulcus ibis ibis –> Bubulcus ibis
  • Eastern Cattle Egret: Bubulcus ibis coromandus –> Bubulcus coromandus
  • Western/Eastern Cattle Egret: Bubulcus ibis –> Bubulcus ibis/coromandus
  • Yellow-billed Egret: Ardea intermedia brachyrhyncha –> Ardea brachyrhyncha
  • Medium Egret: Ardea intermedia intermedia –> Ardea intermedia
  • Plumed Egret: Ardea intermedia plumifera –> Ardea plumifera
  • Great Egret x Gray Heron (hybrid): Ardea cinerea x alba –> Ardea alba x cinerea
  • Great Egret x Great Blue Heron (hybrid): Ardea herodias x alba –> Ardea alba x herodias
  • white egret sp.: Ardea/Egretta/Bubulcus sp. –> Egretta/Bubulcus/Ardea sp.
  • Oriental Honey-buzzard (Indomalayan): Pernis ptilorhynchus [ptilorhynchus Group] –> Pernis ptilorhynchus ruficollis/philippensis
  • Eurasian Goshawk: Accipiter gentilis [gentilis Group] –> Accipiter gentilis
  • American Goshawk: Accipiter gentilis –> Accipiter atricapillus
  • Cooper’s Hawk x American Goshawk (hybrid): Accipiter cooperii x gentilis –> Accipiter cooperii x atricapillus
  • Cooper’s Hawk/American Goshawk: Accipiter cooperii/gentilis –> Accipiter cooperii/atricapillus
  • Steller’s Sea-Eagle x Bald Eagle (hybrid): Haliaeetus leucocephalus x pelagicus –> Haliaeetus pelagicus x leucocephalus
  • White-bellied Sea-Eagle: Haliaeetus leucogaster –> Icthyophaga leucogaster
  • Sanford’s Sea-Eagle: Haliaeetus sanfordi –> Icthyophaga sanfordi
  • African Fish-Eagle: Haliaeetus vocifer –> Icthyophaga vocifer
  • Madagascar Fish-Eagle: Haliaeetus vociferoides –> Icthyophaga vociferoides
  • Lesser Fish-Eagle: Haliaeetus humilis –> Icthyophaga humilis
  • Gray-headed Fish-Eagle: Haliaeetus ichthyaetus –> Icthyophaga ichthyaetus
  • Lesser/Gray-headed Fish-Eagle: Haliaeetus humilis/ichthyaetus –> Icthyophaga humilis/ichthyaetus
  • Haliaeetus/Icthyophaga sp.: Haliaeetus sp. –> Haliaeetus/Icthyophaga sp.
  • Principe Scops-Owl: Otus [undescribed form] –> Otus bikegila
  • Akun Eagle-Owl: Ketupa leucostictus –> Ketupa leucosticta
  • Verreaux’s Eagle-Owl: Ketupa lacteus –> Ketupa lactea
  • Dusky Eagle-Owl: Ketupa coromandus –> Ketupa coromanda
  • Barred Eagle-Owl: Ketupa sumatranus –> Ketupa sumatrana
  • Javan Trogon: Harpactes reinwardtii –> Apalharpactes reinwardtii
  • Sumatran Trogon: Harpactes mackloti –> Apalharpactes mackloti
  • asian trogon sp.: Harpactes sp. –> Apalharpactes/Harpactes sp.
  • Northern Black-throated Trogon: Trogon rufus tenellus –> Trogon tenellus
  • Choco Black-throated Trogon: Trogon rufus cupreicauda –> Trogon cupreicauda
  • Amazonian Black-throated Trogon: Trogon rufus [rufus Group] –> Trogon rufus
  • Atlantic Black-throated Trogon: Trogon rufus chrysochloros –> Trogon chrysochloros
  • West African Pied Hornbill: Lophoceros fasciatus semifasciatus –> Lophoceros semifasciatus
  • Congo Pied Hornbill: Lophoceros fasciatus fasciatus –> Lophoceros fasciatus
  • West African/Congo Pied Hornbill: Lophoceros fasciatus –> Lophoceros semifasciatus/fasciatus
  • Western Long-tailed Hornbill: Horizocerus albocristatus albocristatus/macrourus –> Horizocerus albocristatus
  • Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill: Horizocerus albocristatus cassini –> Horizocerus cassini
  • Western/Eastern Long-tailed Hornbill: Horizocerus albocristatus –> Horizocerus albocristatus/cassini
  • Western Dwarf Hornbill: Horizocerus hartlaubi hartlaubi –> Horizocerus hartlaubi
  • Eastern Dwarf Hornbill: Horizocerus hartlaubi granti –> Horizocerus granti
  • Western/Eastern Dwarf Hornbill: Horizocerus hartlaubi –> Horizocerus hartlaubi/granti
  • Yellow-casqued/Black-casqued Hornbill: Ceratogymna atrata/elata –> Ceratogymna elata/atrata
  • Helmeted Hornbill: Buceros vigil –> Rhinoplax vigil
  • Common Kingfisher (Cobalt-eared): Alcedo atthis hispidoides/salomonensis –> Alcedo atthis [hispidoides Group]
  • Green Barbet: Stactolaema olivacea –> Cryptolybia olivacea
  • Green Barbet (Green): Stactolaema olivacea olivacea –> Cryptolybia olivacea olivacea
  • Green Barbet (Howell’s): Stactolaema olivacea howelli –> Cryptolybia olivacea howelli
  • Green Barbet (Woodward’s): Stactolaema olivacea woodwardi –> Cryptolybia olivacea woodwardi
  • Brown-breasted Barbet: Lybius melanopterus –> Pogonornis melanopterus
  • Black-backed Barbet: Lybius minor –> Pogonornis minor
  • Black-backed Barbet (Brown-backed): Lybius minor minor –> Pogonornis minor minor
  • Black-backed Barbet (Black-backed): Lybius minor macclounii –> Pogonornis minor macclounii
  • Double-toothed Barbet: Lybius bidentatus –> Pogonornis bidentatus
  • Bearded Barbet: Lybius dubius –> Pogonornis dubius
  • Black-breasted Barbet: Lybius rolleti –> Pogonornis rolleti
  • Blue-eared Barbet: Psilopogon duvaucelii cyanotis/orientalis –> Psilopogon cyanotis
  • Black-eared Barbet: Psilopogon duvaucelii [duvaucelii Group] –> Psilopogon duvaucelii
  • Blue-eared/Black-eared Barbet: Psilopogon duvaucelii –> Psilopogon cyanotis/duvaucelii
  • Abyssinian Woodpecker: Chloropicus abyssinicus –> Dendropicos abyssinicus
  • Melancholy Woodpecker: Chloropicus lugubris –> Dendropicos lugubris
  • Gabon Woodpecker: Chloropicus gabonensis –> Dendropicos gabonensis
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker: Chloropicus elliotii –> Dendropicos elliotii
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Elliot’s): Chloropicus elliotii elliotii –> Dendropicos elliotii elliotii
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Johnston’s): Chloropicus elliotii johnstoni –> Dendropicos elliotii johnstoni
  • Little Gray Woodpecker: Chloropicus elachus –> Dendropicos elachus
  • Speckle-breasted Woodpecker: Chloropicus poecilolaemus –> Dendropicos poecilolaemus
  • Cardinal Woodpecker: Chloropicus fuscescens –> Dendropicos fuscescens
  • Stierling’s Woodpecker: Chloropicus stierlingi –> Dendropicos stierlingi
  • Brown-backed Woodpecker: Chloropicus obsoletus –> Dendropicos obsoletus
  • African Gray Woodpecker: Chloropicus goertae –> Dendropicos goertae
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Sahel): Chloropicus goertae koenigi –> Dendropicos goertae koenigi
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Gray): Chloropicus goertae [goertae Group] –> Dendropicos goertae [goertae Group]
  • Mountain Gray Woodpecker: Chloropicus spodocephalus –> Dendropicos spodocephalus
  • Olive Woodpecker: Chloropicus griseocephalus –> Dendropicos griseocephalus
  • Olive Woodpecker (Red-bellied): Chloropicus griseocephalus ruwenzori –> Dendropicos griseocephalus ruwenzori
  • Olive Woodpecker (Montane): Chloropicus griseocephalus kilimensis –> Dendropicos griseocephalus kilimensis
  • Olive Woodpecker (Southern): Chloropicus griseocephalus griseocephalus –> Dendropicos griseocephalus griseocephalus
  • Crimson-naped Woodpecker: Dryobates cathpharius [cathpharius Group] –> Dryobates cathpharius
  • Necklaced Woodpecker: Dryobates cathpharius [pernyii Group] –> Dryobates pernyii
  • Crimson-naped/Necklaced Woodpecker: Dryobates cathpharius –> Dryobates cathpharius/pernyii
  • Orange-backed Woodpecker: Reinwardtipicus validus –> Chrysocolaptes validus
  • Malabar Flameback: Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus socialis –> Chrysocolaptes socialis
  • Buff-rumped Woodpecker: Meiglyptes tristis –> Meiglyptes grammithorax
  • Zebra Woodpecker: Meiglyptes tristis tristis –> Meiglyptes tristis
  • Olive-backed Woodpecker: Dinopium rafflesii –> Gecinulus rafflesii
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker: Campethera caroli –> Pardipicus caroli
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker (Western): Campethera caroli arizela –> Pardipicus caroli arizelus
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker (Carol’s): Campethera caroli caroli –> Pardipicus caroli caroli
  • Buff-spotted Woodpecker: Campethera nivosa –> Pardipicus nivosus
  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker: Campethera tullbergi tullbergi –> Campethera tullbergi
  • Fine-banded Woodpecker: Campethera tullbergi taeniolaema/hausburgi –> Campethera taeniolaema
  • Green-backed Woodpecker: Campethera cailliautii –> Campethera maculosa
  • Green-backed Woodpecker (Little Green): Campethera maculosa –> Campethera maculosa maculosa
  • Green-backed Woodpecker (Plain-backed): Campethera cailliautii permista –> Campethera maculosa permista
  • Green-backed Woodpecker (Spot-backed): Campethera cailliautii [cailliautii Group] –> Campethera maculosa [cailliautii Group]
  • Waved Woodpecker (Scale-breasted): Celeus grammicus –> Celeus undatus [grammicus Group]
  • Waved Woodpecker (Waved): Celeus undatus –> Celeus undatus [undatus Group]
  • Pink Cockatoo: Lophochroa leadbeateri –> Cacatua leadbeateri
  • Little x Long-billed Corella (hybrid): Cacatua tenuirostris x sanguinea –> Cacatua sanguinea x tenuirostris
  • White x Salmon-crested Cockatoo (hybrid): Cacatua moluccensis x alba –> Cacatua alba x moluccensis
  • Citron-crested Cockatoo: Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata –> Cacatua citrinocristata
  • Comoro Black Parrot: Coracopsis nigra sibilans –> Coracopsis sibilans
  • Moluccan Eclectus: Eclectus roratus roratus/vosmaeri –> Eclectus roratus
  • Sumba Eclectus: Eclectus roratus cornelia –> Eclectus cornelia
  • Tanimbar Eclectus: Eclectus roratus riedeli –> Eclectus riedeli
  • Papuan Eclectus: Eclectus roratus [polychloros Group] –> Eclectus polychloros
  • eclectus sp.: Eclectus roratus –> Eclectus sp.
  • Simeulue Parrot: Psittinus cyanurus abbotti –> Psittinus abbotti
  • Mascarene Parrot: Mascarinus mascarin –> Mascarinus mascarinus
  • Blue-backed Parrot: Tanygnathus sumatranus [everetti Group] –> Tanygnathus everetti
  • Azure-rumped Parrot: Tanygnathus sumatranus sumatranus/sangirensis –> Tanygnathus sumatranus
  • Blue-backed/Azure-rumped Parrot: Tanygnathus sumatranus –> Tanygnathus everetti/sumatranus
  • Mulga Parrot: Psephotus varius –> Psephotellus varius
  • Hooded Parrot: Psephotus dissimilis –> Psephotellus dissimilis
  • Golden-shouldered Parrot: Psephotus chrysopterygius –> Psephotellus chrysopterygius
  • Paradise Parrot: Psephotus pulcherrimus –> Psephotellus pulcherrimus
  • Dusky-cheeked Fig-Parrot: Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii [melanogenia Group] –> Cyclopsitta melanogenia
  • Blue-fronted Fig-Parrot: Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii gulielmitertii –> Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii
  • Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted): Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii nigrifrons –> Cyclopsitta nigrifrons nigrifrons
  • Black-fronted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted): Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii amabilis/ramuensis –> Cyclopsitta nigrifrons amabilis/ramuensis
  • Cyclopsitta sp.: Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii –> Cyclopsitta sp.
  • Stella’s Lorikeet: Charmosyna papou [stellae Group] –> Charmosyna stellae
  • Ornate Lorikeet: Saudareos ornatus –> Saudareos ornata
  • Biak Lorikeet: Trichoglossus haematodus rosenbergii –> Trichoglossus rosenbergii
  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet: Psittacara wagleri wagleri/transilis –> Psittacara wagleri
  • Cordilleran Parakeet: Psittacara wagleri frontatus/minor –> Psittacara frontatus
  • Scarlet-fronted/Cordilleran Parakeet: Psittacara wagleri –> Psittacara wagleri/frontatus
  • Cordilleran/Mitred Parakeet: Psittacara wagleri/mitratus –> Psittacara frontatus/mitratus
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill: Serilophus lunatus [lunatus Group] –> Serilophus lunatus
  • Gray-lored Broadbill: Serilophus lunatus rubropygius –> Serilophus rubropygius
  • Silver-breasted/Gray-lored Broadbill: Serilophus lunatus –> Serilophus lunatus/rubropygius
  • Sulawesi Pitta (Sulawesi): Erythropitta celebensis –> Erythropitta celebensis celebensis
  • Sulawesi Pitta (Sangihe): Erythropitta caeruleitorques –> Erythropitta celebensis caeruleitorques
  • Sulawesi Pitta (Siau): Erythropitta palliceps –> Erythropitta celebensis palliceps
  • Bismarck Pitta (New Ireland): Erythropitta novaehibernicae –> Erythropitta novaehibernicae novaehibernicae/extima
  • Bismarck Pitta (Tabar): Erythropitta splendida –> Erythropitta novaehibernicae splendida
  • Bismarck Pitta (New Britain): Erythropitta gazellae –> Erythropitta novaehibernicae gazellae
  • Nicobar Hooded Pitta: Pitta sordida abbotti –> Pitta abbotti
  • Minahasa Hooded Pitta: Pitta sordida forsteni –> Pitta forsteni
  • Eastern Hooded Pitta (Papuan): Pitta sordida novaeguineae/goodfellowi –> Pitta novaeguineae novaeguineae/goodfellowi
  • Eastern Hooded Pitta (Numfor): Pitta sordida mefoorana –> Pitta novaeguineae mefoorana
  • Biak Hooded Pitta: Pitta sordida rosenbergii –> Pitta rosenbergii
  • Inambari-Tambopata Antwren (undescribed form): Herpsilochmus [undescribed Inambari-Tambopata Antwren] –> Herpsilochmus [undescribed Inambari-Tambopata form]
  • Northern White-fringed Antwren: Formicivora grisea [intermedia Group] –> Formicivora intermedia
  • Southern White-fringed Antwren: Formicivora grisea grisea/rufiventris –> Formicivora grisea
  • Northern/Southern White-fringed Antwren: Formicivora grisea –> Formicivora intermedia/grisea
  • Serra Antwren (Serra): Formicivora serrana –> Formicivora serrana serrana/interposita
  • Serra Antwren (Restinga): Formicivora littoralis –> Formicivora serrana littoralis
  • Boyaca Antpitta: Grallaria quitensis alticola –> Grallaria alticola
  • Tawny Antpitta: Grallaria quitensis quitensis –> Grallaria quitensis
  • Atuen Antpitta: Grallaria quitensis atuensis –> Grallaria atuensis
  • Tapajos Scythebill (Rondonia): Campylorhamphus procurvoides probatus –> Campylorhamphus probatus probatus
  • Tapajos Scythebill (Tapajos): Campylorhamphus procurvoides cardosoi –> Campylorhamphus probatus cardosoi
  • Xingu Scythebill: Campylorhamphus procurvoides multostriatus –> Campylorhamphus multostriatus
  • Pacific Hornero: Furnarius leucopus cinnamomeus –> Furnarius cinnamomeus
  • Caribbean Hornero: Furnarius leucopus longirostris/endoecus –> Furnarius longirostris
  • Pale-legged Hornero: Furnarius leucopus [leucopus Group] –> Furnarius leucopus
  • Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (Mexican): Automolus ochrolaemus cervinigularis –> Automolus cervinigularis cervinigularis
  • Fawn-throated Foliage-gleaner (hypophaeus): Automolus ochrolaemus hypophaeus –> Automolus cervinigularis hypophaeus
  • Western Woodhaunter: Automolus subulatus [virgatus Group] –> Automolus virgatus
  • Eastern Woodhaunter: Automolus subulatus subulatus/lemae –> Automolus subulatus
  • Plain Thornbird: Phacellodomus rufifrons inornatus/castilloi –> Phacellodomus inornatus
  • Streak-backed Canastero (Streak-backed): Asthenes wyatti –> Asthenes wyatti [wyatti Group]
  • Streak-backed Canastero (Puna): Asthenes sclateri –> Asthenes wyatti [sclateri Group]
  • Speckled Spinetail: Cranioleuca gutturata –> Thripophaga gutturata
  • Russet-mantled Softtail: Thripophaga berlepschi –> Cranioleuca berlepschi
  • Araguaia Spinetail: Synallaxis albilora simoni –> Synallaxis simoni
  • Andean Laniisoma: Laniisoma elegans [buckleyi Group] –> Laniisoma buckleyi
  • Brazilian Laniisoma: Laniisoma elegans elegans –> Laniisoma elegans
  • Black-and-white/Cryptic Becard: Pachyramphus albogriseus –> Pachyramphus albogriseus/salvini
  • Atlantic Royal Flycatcher: Onychorhynchus coronatus swainsoni –> Onychorhynchus swainsoni
  • Western Olivaceous Flatbill: Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [aequinoctialis Group] –> Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis
  • Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill: Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [olivaceus Group] –> Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
  • Western/Eastern Olivaceous Flatbill: Rhynchocyclus olivaceus –> Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis/olivaceus
  • Tumbes Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus tumbezana –> Nesotriccus tumbezanus
  • Marañon Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus maranonica –> Nesotriccus maranonicus
  • Tumbes/Marañon Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus tumbezana/maranonica –> Nesotriccus tumbezanus/maranonicus
  • Northern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus incomta –> Nesotriccus incomtus
  • Southern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus murina –> Nesotriccus murinus
  • Northern/Southern Mouse-colored Tyrannulet: Nesotriccus incomta/murina –> Nesotriccus incomtus/murinus
  • Western Flycatcher: Empidonax difficilis/occidentalis –> Empidonax difficilis
  • Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope): Empidonax difficilis –> Empidonax difficilis [difficilis Group]
  • Western Flycatcher (Cordilleran): Empidonax occidentalis –> Empidonax difficilis occidentalis/hellmayri
  • Western Flycatcher (Pacific-slope x Cordilleran Flycatcher): Empidonax difficilis x occidentalis –> Empidonax difficilis difficilis x hellmayri
  • Tropical Kingbird x Fork-tailed Flycatcher (hybrid): Tyrannus melancholicus x Tyrannus savana –> Tyrannus melancholicus x savana
  • Golden Bowerbird: Amblyornis newtoniana –> Prionodura newtoniana
  • Sooty Honeyeater: Melidectes fuscus –> Melionyx fuscus
  • Short-bearded Honeyeater: Melidectes nouhuysi –> Melionyx nouhuysi
  • Long-bearded Honeyeater: Melidectes princeps –> Melionyx princeps
  • Bacan Myzomela: Myzomela chloroptera batjanensis –> Myzomela batjanensis
  • Long-billed Myzomela: Myzomela rosenbergii longirostris –> Myzomela longirostris
  • Helmeted Friarbird (Tenggara): Philemon buceroides [buceroides Group] –> Philemon buceroides buceroides/neglectus
  • White-browed/Spotted Scrubwren: Sericornis maculatus/frontalis –> Sericornis frontalis/maculatus
  • Pale-billed Scrubwren: Sericornis spilodera –> Aethomyias spilodera
  • Bicolored Mouse-Warbler: Crateroscelis nigrorufa –> Aethomyias nigrorufus
  • mouse-warbler sp.: Crateroscelis sp. –> Crateroscelis robusta/murina/Aethomyias nigrorufus
  • Vogelkop Scrubwren: Sericornis rufescens –> Aethomyias rufescens
  • Buff-faced Scrubwren: Sericornis perspicillatus –> Aethomyias perspicillatus
  • Gray-green Scrubwren: Sericornis arfakianus –> Aethomyias arfakianus
  • Papuan Scrubwren: Sericornis papuensis –> Aethomyias papuensis
  • scrubwren sp.: Sericornis sp. –> Neosericornis/Sericornis/Aethomyias sp.
  • Tasmanian/Brown Thornbill: Acanthiza pusilla/ewingii –> Acanthiza ewingii/pusilla
  • Papuan Babbler: Pomatostomus isidorei –> Garritornis isidorei
  • Western Crested Berrypecker: Paramythia montium olivacea/alpina –> Paramythia olivacea
  • Eastern Crested Berrypecker: Paramythia montium montium/brevicauda –> Paramythia montium
  • Western/Eastern Crested Berrypecker: Paramythia montium –> Paramythia olivacea/montium
  • Wetar Oriole: Oriolus melanotis finschi –> Oriolus finschi
  • Ventriloquial Oriole: Oriolus xanthonotus consobrinus/persuasus –> Oriolus consobrinus
  • Black-and-crimson Oriole: Oriolus cruentus –> Oriolus consanguineus
  • Javan Oriole: Oriolus cruentus cruentus –> Oriolus cruentus
  • Black Butcherbird: Cracticus quoyi –> Melloria quoyi
  • White-gorgeted Fantail: Rhipidura cockerelli coultasi –> Rhipidura coultasi
  • Supertramp Fantail: Rhipidura dryas [semicollaris Group] –> Rhipidura semicollaris
  • Gilolo Fantail: Rhipidura rufifrons torrida –> Rhipidura torrida
  • Australian Rufous Fantail: Rhipidura rufifrons rufifrons/intermedia –> Rhipidura rufifrons
  • Louisiade Fantail: Rhipidura rufifrons louisiadensis –> Rhipidura louisiadensis
  • Santa Cruz Fantail (White-fronted): Rhipidura rufifrons melaenolaema/utupuae –> Rhipidura melaenolaema melaenolaema/utupuae
  • Santa Cruz Fantail (Brown-fronted): Rhipidura rufifrons agilis –> Rhipidura melaenolaema agilis
  • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Guam): Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae –> Rhipidura versicolor uraniae
  • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Marianas): Rhipidura rufifrons saipanensis/mariae –> Rhipidura versicolor saipanensis/mariae
  • Micronesian Rufous Fantail (Yap): Rhipidura rufifrons versicolor –> Rhipidura versicolor versicolor
  • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Brown-backed): Rhipidura rufifrons [rufofronta Group] –> Rhipidura rufofronta [rufofronta Group]
  • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Rufous-backed): Rhipidura rufifrons russata/kuperi –> Rhipidura rufofronta russata/kuperi
  • Solomons Rufous Fantail (Dark-throated): Rhipidura rufifrons ugiensis –> Rhipidura rufofronta ugiensis
  • Bougainville Fantail: Rhipidura drownei drownei –> Rhipidura drownei
  • Guadalcanal Fantail: Rhipidura drownei ocularis –> Rhipidura ocularis
  • Vanuatu Streaked Fantail: Rhipidura verreauxi spilodera –> Rhipidura spilodera
  • Fiji Streaked Fantail (Fiji): Rhipidura verreauxi layardi/erythronota –> Rhipidura layardi layardi/erythronota
  • Fiji Streaked Fantail (Taveuni): Rhipidura verreauxi rufilateralis –> Rhipidura layardi rufilateralis
  • New Caledonian Streaked Fantail: Rhipidura verreauxi verreauxi –> Rhipidura verreauxi
  • Sharpe’s Drongo (Western): Dicrurus occidentalis –> Dicrurus sharpei occidentalis
  • Sharpe’s Drongo (Eastern): Dicrurus sharpei –> Dicrurus sharpei sharpei
  • Sharpe’s/Square-tailed Drongo: Dicrurus occidentalis/sharpei/ludwigii –> Dicrurus sharpei/ludwigii
  • Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed): Dicrurus divaricatus –> Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus/lugubris
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Fanti): Dicrurus atactus –> Dicrurus modestus atactus
  • Ashy Drongo (Hainan/White-cheeked/White-lored): Dicrurus leucophaeus [innexus Group] –> Dicrurus leucophaeus innexus/leucogenis/salangensis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Mentawai): Dicrurus sumatranus viridinitens –> Dicrurus hottentottus viridinitens
  • Short-tailed Drongo: Dicrurus hottentottus striatus/samarensis –> Dicrurus striatus
  • Palawan Drongo (Palawan): Dicrurus hottentottus palawanensis –> Dicrurus palawanensis palawanensis
  • Palawan Drongo (Cuyo): Dicrurus hottentottus cuyensis –> Dicrurus palawanensis cuyensis
  • Halmahera Paradise-crow: Lycocorax pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus/morotensis –> Lycocorax pyrrhopterus
  • Obi Paradise-crow: Lycocorax pyrrhopterus obiensis –> Lycocorax obiensis
  • Lawes’s Parotia: Parotia lawesii lawesii –> Parotia lawesii
  • Eastern Parotia: Parotia lawesii helenae –> Parotia helenae
  • Lawes’s/Eastern Parotia: Parotia lawesii –> Parotia lawesii/helenae
  • Wilson’s Bird-of-Paradise: Cicinnurus respublica –> Diphyllodes respublica
  • Magnificent Bird-of-Paradise: Cicinnurus magnificus –> Diphyllodes magnificus
  • Blue Bird-of-Paradise: Paradisaea rudolphi –> Paradisornis rudolphi
  • Greater Melampitta: Melampitta gigantea –> Megalampitta gigantea
  • Slender-billed Crow (Sunda): Corvus enca [enca Group] –> Corvus enca enca/compilator
  • Cuban Palm-Crow: Corvus palmarum minutus –> Corvus minutus
  • Hispaniolan Palm-Crow: Corvus palmarum palmarum –> Corvus palmarum
  • Spotted Berrypecker: Melanocharis crassirostris piperata/viridescens –> Melanocharis piperata
  • Canary Flyrobin: Microeca papuana –> Devioeca papuana
  • Olive Flyrobin: Microeca flavovirescens –> Kempiella flavovirescens
  • Yellow-legged Flyrobin: Microeca griseoceps –> Kempiella griseoceps
  • Yellow-bellied Flyrobin: Eopsaltria flaviventris –> Cryptomicroeca flaviventris
  • flyrobin sp.: Microeca sp. –> Microeca/Devioeca/Kempiella sp.
  • Black-capped Robin: Heteromyias albispecularis [armiti Group] –> Heteromyias armiti
  • Black-chinned Robin: Poecilodryas brachyura –> Heteromyias brachyurus
  • Black-throated Robin: Poecilodryas albonotata –> Plesiodryas albonotata
  • White-rumped Robin: Peneothello bimaculata –> Melanodryas bimaculata
  • Mangrove Robin: Eopsaltria pulverulenta –> Melanodryas pulverulenta
  • White-winged Robin: Peneothello sigillata –> Melanodryas sigillata
  • Blue-gray Robin: Peneothello cyanus –> Melanodryas cyanus
  • Smoky Robin: Peneothello cryptoleuca –> Melanodryas cryptoleuca
  • Banded Yellow Robin: Poecilodryas placens –> Eopsaltria placens
  • Pale-yellow Robin: Tregellasia capito –> Eopsaltria capito
  • White-faced Robin: Tregellasia leucops –> Eopsaltria leucops
  • Coal Tit (Himalayan): Periparus ater aemodius/rufipectus –> Periparus ater [aemodius Group]
  • New Caledonian Grassbird: Cincloramphus mariei –> Cincloramphus mariae
  • Striated Grassbird: Cincloramphus palustris –> Megalurus palustris
  • Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp.: Poodytes/Cincloramphus sp. –> Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp.
  • Brazza’s Martin: Phedina brazzae –> Phedinopsis brazzae
  • Madagascar Martin: Riparia paludicola cowani –> Riparia cowani
  • Violet-green x Northern Rough-winged Swallow (hybrid): Stelgidopteryx serripennis x Tachycineta thalassina –> Tachycineta thalassina x Stelgidopteryx serripennis
  • Square-tailed Sawwing/Forest Swallow: Atronanus fuliginosus/Psalidoprocne nitens –> Psalidoprocne nitens/Atronanus fuliginosus
  • Western House-Martin: Delichon urbicum urbicum/meridionale –> Delichon urbicum
  • Siberian House-Martin: Delichon urbicum lagopodum –> Delichon lagopodum
  • Western/Siberian House-Martin: Delichon urbicum –> Delichon urbicum/lagopodum
  • Siberian/Asian House-Martin: Delichon urbicum/dasypus –> Delichon lagopodum/dasypus
  • Xavier’s/Icterine Greenbul: Phyllastrephus icterinus/xavieri –> Phyllastrephus xavieri/icterinus
  • Striated Bulbul: Pycnonotus striatus –> Alcurus striatus
  • Finsch’s Bulbul: Alophoixus finschii –> Iole finschii
  • Olive/Buff-vented Bulbul: Iole crypta/viridescens –> Iole viridescens/crypta
  • Yellow-browed Bulbul: Iole indica –> Acritillas indica
  • Cream-striped Bulbul: Pycnonotus leucogrammicus –> Ixos leucogrammicus
  • Sumatran Bulbul: Ixos virescens sumatranus –> Ixos sumatranus
  • Javan Bulbul: Ixos virescens virescens –> Ixos virescens
  • Nicobar Bulbul: Hypsipetes nicobariensis –> Ixos nicobariensis
  • Banggai Golden-Bulbul: Hypsipetes longirostris harterti –> Hypsipetes harterti
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul: Hypsipetes longirostris longirostris –> Hypsipetes longirostris
  • Yellowish Bulbul (Yellowish): Hypsipetes everetti everetti/samarensis –> Hypsipetes everetti everetti
  • Camiguin Bulbul: Hypsipetes everetti catarmanensis –> Hypsipetes catarmanensis
  • Puff-backed Bulbul: Brachypodius eutilotus –> Microtarsus eutilotus
  • Black-and-white Bulbul: Brachypodius melanoleucos –> Microtarsus melanoleucos
  • Yellow-wattled Bulbul: Brachypodius urostictus –> Microtarsus urostictus
  • Gray-headed Bulbul: Brachypodius priocephalus –> Microtarsus priocephalus
  • Black-headed Bulbul: Brachypodius melanocephalos –> Microtarsus melanocephalos
  • Andaman Bulbul: Brachypodius fuscoflavescens –> Microtarsus fuscoflavescens
  • Blue-wattled Bulbul: Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii –> Microtarsus nieuwenhuisii
  • Black-capped Bulbul: Rubigula melanicterus –> Rubigula melanictera
  • Cream-vented/Cream-eyed Bulbul: Pycnonotus pseudosimplex/simplex –> Pycnonotus simplex/pseudosimplex
  • Pale-eyed Bulbul: Pycnonotus finlaysoni davisoni –> Pycnonotus davisoni
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul: Pycnonotus finlaysoni finlaysoni/eous –> Pycnonotus finlaysoni
  • Olive-winged/Stripe-throated Bulbul: Pycnonotus finlaysoni/plumosus –> Pycnonotus plumosus/finlaysoni
  • Pale-eyed/Stripe-throated Bulbul: Pycnonotus finlaysoni –> Pycnonotus davisoni/finlaysoni
  • Pale-faced Bulbul: Pycnonotus flavescens leucops –> Pycnonotus leucops
  • Light-vented x Styan’s Bulbul (hybrid): Pycnonotus taivanus x sinensis –> Pycnonotus sinensis x taivanus
  • Light-vented/Styan’s Bulbul: Pycnonotus taivanus/sinensis –> Pycnonotus sinensis/taivanus
  • Red-whiskered x Red-vented Bulbul (hybrid): Pycnonotus cafer x jocosus –> Pycnonotus jocosus x cafer
  • Red-whiskered/Red-vented Bulbul: Pycnonotus cafer/jocosus –> Pycnonotus jocosus/cafer
  • Microtarsus/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp.: Brachypodius/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp. –> Microtarsus/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp.
  • Neumann’s Warbler: Urosphena neumanni –> Hemitesia neumanni
  • Pale-footed Bush Warbler: Urosphena pallidipes –> Hemitesia pallidipes
  • Black-throated Tit (Red-headed): Aegithalos concinnus iredalei –> Aegithalos concinnus iredalei/rubricapillus
  • Short-tailed Parrotbill: Neosuthora davidiana –> Suthora davidiana
  • Pale-billed Parrotbill: Chleuasicus atrosuperciliaris –> Suthora atrosuperciliaris
  • Spectacled Parrotbill: Sinosuthora conspicillata –> Suthora conspicillata
  • Gray-hooded Parrotbill: Sinosuthora zappeyi –> Suthora zappeyi
  • Eye-ringed Parrotbill: Sinosuthora brunnea ricketti –> Suthora ricketti
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill: Sinosuthora brunnea brunnea/styani –> Suthora brunnea
  • Vinous-throated Parrotbill: Sinosuthora webbiana –> Suthora webbiana
  • Ashy-throated Parrotbill: Sinosuthora alphonsiana –> Suthora alphonsiana
  • Vinous-throated x Ashy-throated Parrotbill (hybrid): Sinosuthora webbiana x alphonsiana –> Suthora webbiana x alphonsiana
  • Rusty-throated Parrotbill: Sinosuthora przewalskii –> Suthora przewalskii
  • parrotbill sp.: Sylviidae (parrotbill sp.) –> Paradoxornithidae sp.
  • Calabarzon Babbler: Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus affinis –> Sterrhoptilus affinis
  • Visayan Babbler: Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus nigrocapitatus/boholensis –> Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus
  • Morotai White-eye: Zosterops atriceps dehaani –> Zosterops dehaani
  • Wangi-Wangi White-eye: Zosterops [undescribed Wangi-Wangi form] –> Zosterops paruhbesar
  • Bougainville White-eye: Zosterops rendovae hamlini –> Zosterops hamlini
  • Malayan Black-capped Babbler: Pellorneum capistratum [nigrocapitatum Group] –> Pellorneum nigrocapitatum
  • Javan Black-capped Babbler: Pellorneum capistratum capistratum –> Pellorneum capistratum
  • Tanzanian Illadopsis: Illadopsis rufipennis distans/puguensis –> Illadopsis distans
  • Siberian Nuthatch: Sitta europaea arctica –> Sitta arctica
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher (Southern): Muscicapa dauurica siamensis –> Muscicapa dauurica poonensis/siamensis
  • White-tailed Flycatcher: Cyornis concretus –> Leucoptilon concretum
  • Mindanao Shortwing (undescribed form): Brachypteryx (undescribed submontane Mindanao form) –> Brachypteryx [undescribed submontane Mindanao form]
  • White-winged Cliff-Chat: Thamnolaea semirufa –> Monticola semirufus
  • Heuglin’s Wheatear: Oenanthe heuglini –> Oenanthe heuglinii
  • Yellow-crowned Flowerpecker: Dicaeum anthonyi anthonyi –> Dicaeum anthonyi
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker: Dicaeum anthonyi kampalili/masawan –> Dicaeum kampalili
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker: Dicaeum ignipectus [ignipectus Group] –> Dicaeum ignipectus
  • Cambodian Flowerpecker: Dicaeum ignipectus cambodianum –> Dicaeum cambodianum
  • Fire-throated Flowerpecker: Dicaeum ignipectus [luzoniense Group] –> Dicaeum luzoniense
  • Sumatran Flowerpecker: Dicaeum ignipectus beccarii –> Dicaeum beccarii
  • Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Pink-breasted): Dicaeum hirundinaceum keiense/fulgidum –> Dicaeum keiense keiense/fulgidum
  • Pink-breasted Flowerpecker (Aru): Dicaeum hirundinaceum ignicolle –> Dicaeum keiense ignicolle
  • Ornate Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis –> Cinnyris ornatus
  • Ornate Sunbird (Cream-bellied): Cinnyris jugularis rhizophorae –> Cinnyris ornatus rhizophorae
  • Sahul Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis [frenatus Group] –> Cinnyris frenatus
  • Palawan Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis aurora –> Cinnyris aurora
  • South Moluccan Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis [clementiae Group] –> Cinnyris clementiae
  • Flores Sea Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis teysmanni –> Cinnyris teysmanni
  • Mamberamo Sunbird: Cinnyris jugularis idenburgi –> Cinnyris idenburgi
  • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Luzon): Aethopyga jefferyi –> Aethopyga pulcherrima jefferyi
  • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Bohol): Aethopyga decorosa –> Aethopyga pulcherrima decorosa
  • Metallic-winged Sunbird (Southern): Aethopyga pulcherrima –> Aethopyga pulcherrima pulcherrima
  • Palawan Fairy-bluebird: Irena puella tweeddalii –> Irena tweeddalii
  • Blue-winged Leafbird: Chloropsis cochinchinensis –> Chloropsis moluccensis
  • Javan Leafbird: Chloropsis cochinchinensis cochinchinensis –> Chloropsis cochinchinensis
  • White-rumped Snowfinch: Montifringilla taczanowskii –> Onychostruthus taczanowskii
  • Pere David’s Snowfinch: Montifringilla davidiana –> Pyrgilauda davidiana
  • Rufous-necked Snowfinch: Montifringilla ruficollis –> Pyrgilauda ruficollis
  • Blanford’s Snowfinch: Montifringilla blanfordi –> Pyrgilauda blanfordi
  • Afghan Snowfinch: Montifringilla theresae –> Pyrgilauda theresae
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima/lutea): Motacilla flava lutea/flavissima –> Motacilla flava flavissima/lutea
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Channel Wagtail intergrade): Motacilla flava flava x flavissima –> Motacilla flava flavissima x flava
  • Yellowish Pipit: Anthus lutescens –> Anthus chii
  • Canary Islands Chaffinch (Canary Is.): Fringilla coelebs canariensis/ombriosa –> Fringilla canariensis canariensis/ombriosa
  • Canary Islands Chaffinch (La Palma): Fringilla coelebs palmae –> Fringilla canariensis palmae
  • African Chaffinch (African): Fringilla coelebs africana –> Fringilla spodiogenys africana
  • African Chaffinch (Tunisian): Fringilla coelebs spodiogenys –> Fringilla spodiogenys spodiogenys/harterti
  • Hispaniolan Euphonia: Chlorophonia musica musica –> Chlorophonia musica
  • Puerto Rican Euphonia: Chlorophonia musica sclateri –> Chlorophonia sclateri
  • Lesser Antillean Euphonia: Chlorophonia musica flavifrons –> Chlorophonia flavifrons
  • Velvet-fronted/Trinidad Euphonia: Euphonia trinitatis/concinna –> Euphonia concinna/trinitatis
  • Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Hepburn’s x Gray-crowned): Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis x tephrocotis Group –> Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis x [tephrocotis Group]
  • Cape Bunting (Vincent’s): Emberiza vincenti –> Emberiza capensis vincenti
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Oregon x Pink-sided): Junco hyemalis oreganus x mearnsi –> Junco hyemalis [oreganus Group] x mearnsi
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Oregon x Gray-headed): Junco hyemalis oreganus x caniceps –> Junco hyemalis [oreganus Group] x caniceps
  • Yellow-lored Tanager: Chlorothraupis carmioli frenata –> Chlorothraupis frenata
  • Crimson-collared Grosbeak: Rhodothraupis celaeno –> Periporphyrus celaeno
  • Ecuadorian Seedeater: Amaurospiza concolor aequatorialis –> Amaurospiza aequatorialis
  • White-bellied Tanager: Tangara mexicana brasiliensis –> Tangara brasiliensis
  • Slaty Finch: Spodiornis rusticus –> Haplospiza rustica
  • Ibera Seedeater: Sporophila [undescribed form] –> Sporophila iberaensis
  • Wing-barred Seedeater (Caqueta): Sporophila murallae –> Sporophila americana murallae
  • Cuban Bullfinch: Melopyrrha nigra nigra –> Melopyrrha nigra
  • Grand Cayman Bullfinch: Melopyrrha nigra taylori –> Melopyrrha taylori

Additional changes

There are two family changes for this year. First, we recognize the parrotbills (previously included in Sylviidae) as a new family Paradoxornithidae. Second, two species (Green Hylia Hylia prasina and Tit-hylia Pholidornis rushiae) were formerly placed in Macrosphenidae but are recognized to comprise their own family, Hyliidae.